The campaign culminating at Marengo wu the result.
Ten days earlier, namely on the 4th of June, Massna had been compelled by hunger to capitulate at Genoa; but the success at Marengo, followed up by that of Macdonald in north Italy, and Moreat~ at Hohenlinden (December 2, 1800), brought the emperor Francis to sue for peace which was finally concluded -.
Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics (reconstituted soon after Marengo) were recognized by Austria on condition that they were independent of France.
In the first of these spheres the victory of Marengo (14th of June 1800) was of special importance, as it consolidated the reputation of Bonaparte at a time when republican opposition was gathering strength.
As Lucien Bonaparte remarked, if Marengo had been lost - and it was saved only by Desaix and Kellermann - the Bonaparte family would have been proscribed.
In 1799 it was taken of ter ten days' bombardment by the Austrian and Russian armies, and, in 1800, of ter the victory of Marengo, the French demolished the fortifications.
On the r4th (the anniversary of Marengo) Lannes carried out his role of fighting advanced guard or screen, the emperor's main body gradually came up, and the battle of Friedland (q.v.), notable chiefly for the first display of the new artillery tactics of the French, ended with a general attack about 5 P.M.
In these, as well as in his most dramatic success of Marengo in 1800, we can discern no trace of strategical innovation.
During the French occupation (1800-1814), which began after the battle of Marengo, it was still more strongly fortified; the works were entirely destroyed by the Austrians in 1815, but were afterwards reconstructed, and Alessandria is still an important fortress and the headquarters of the second army corps.
The cavalry charges in this quarter are celebrated in the history of the mounted arm; and Kellermann, the hero of Marengo, won fresh laurels against the cavalry of Liechtenstein's command.
After the defeat of the French by the Austro-Russian armies during Bonaparte's absence in Egypt, Charles Emmanuel landed at Leghorn, hoping to regain his kingdom; but Napoleon returned, and by his brilliant victory at Marengo he reaffirmed his position in Italy.
He was present at Marengo in 1800.
After the battle of Marengo an Austrian envoy had come to Paris in response to a proposal of Bonaparte, and Talleyrand persuaded him to sign terms of peace.
Napoleon himself was no longer the Napoleon of Marengo or Austerlitz, and though he was not broken down, his physical strength was certainly impaired.
Its fortifications were destroyed by the French after Marengo (1799); the ramparts are now turned into shady promenades.
The victory of Marengo restoring his freedom, he received the command of the southern part of the kingdom of Naples, and in 1802 he was appointed one of the four generals commanding the consular guard.
It was however immediately afterwards lost in consequence of the battle of Marengo, and the French made their re-entry so rapidly that the admiral had considerable difficulty in getting his ships out of the harbour.
The campaign of Marengo followed (1800) and the peace of Lunville, which not only once more isolated Great Britain, but raised up against her new enemies, to the list of whom she added by using her command of the sea to enforce the right of search in order to seize enemies goods in neutral vessels.
The victory of Marengo (June 14, i8o0) momentarily in the balance, but secured by Desaix and Kellermann, offered a further opportunity to his jealous ambition by increasing his popularity.
Marengo inaugurated the political idea which was to continue its development until his Moscow campaign.
But after Napoleon Bonaparte's victory at Marengo the French returned in great force, dispersed the bands, and re-entered Florence (October r800).