In August Marco Minghetti succeeded in forming a military league and a customs union between Tuscany, Romagna and the duchies, and in procuring the adoption of the Piedmontese codes; and envoys were sent to Paris to mollify Napoleon.
The islands are briefly noticed by Marco Polo, who probably saw without visiting them, under the name Angamanain, seemingly an Arabic dual, "The two Angamans," with the exaggerated but not unnatural picture of the natives, long current, as dog-faced Anthropophagi.
Abu Zaid also wrote on India, and his work is the most important that we possess before the epoch-making discoveries of Marco Polo.
Marco remained for seventeen years in the service of the Great Khan, and was employed on many important missions.
These were at one time more numerous than at the present day; earthquakes and subsidence of foundations have brought many of them down, the latest to fall being the great tower of San Marco itself, which collapsed on July 14th, 1902.
Far superior to these maps is Fra Mauro's map (1457), for the author has availed himself not only of the information collected by Marco Polo and earlier travellers, but *was able, by personal intercourse, to gather additional information from Nicolo de' Conti, who had returned from the east in 1440, and more especially from Abyssinians who lived in Italy at that time.
After a considerable interval, during which the island probably remained uninhabited, the Carthaginians took possession of it (no doubt owing to its importance as a station on the way to Sicily) probably about the beginning of the 7th century B.C., occupying as their acropolis the twin hill of San Marco and Sta Teresa, 1 m.
550) to explain the phenomena of the apparent movements of the sun by means of an earth modelled on the plan of the Jewish Tabernacle gave place ultimately to the wheel-maps - the T in an 0 - which reverted to the primitive ignorance of the times of Homer and Hecataeus.2 The journey of Marco Polo, the increasing trade to the East and the voyages of the Arabs in the Indian Ocean prepared the way for the reacceptance of Ptolemy's ideas when the sealed books of the Greek original were translated into Latin by Angelus in 1410.
The work of Marco Polo is the most valuable narrative of travels that appeared during the middle ages, and despite a cold reception and many denials of the accuracy of the record, its substantial truthfulness has been abundantly proved.
Ibn Batuta, the great Arab traveller, is separated by a wide space of time from his countrymen already mentioned, and he finds his proper place in a chronological notice after the days of Marco Polo, for he did not begin his wanderings until 1325, his career thus coinciding in time with the fabled journeyings of Sir John Mandeville.
In the principal square stands the town hall, built in1448-1457in the VenetianGothic style, and skilfully restored after a fire in 1876; opposite is a clock tower resembling that of the Piazza di San Marco at Venice.
The pictures in this church are the work of Marco Palmezzano (1456-1537) and others; S.
He had the assistance of Marco d'Amadeo, a master-builder, and of Matteo Reverti, a Milanese sculptor, who were joined later on by Giovanni Buono and his son Bartolomeo.
Other artists, of whom we know nothing else, such as Antonio Busetto, Antonio Foscolo, Gasparino Rosso, Giacomo da Como, Marco da Legno and others, were called in to help in evolving this masterpiece of decorated architecture, affording us an example of the way in which the ducal palace and other monuments of Venice grew out of the collaboration of numerous nameless artists.
Giovanni Evangelista, San Marco, della Misericordia and San Rocco, on the other hand, built themselves magnificent gild halls.
We have already mentioned two of these, the Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista and the Scuola di San Marco, both of them masterpieces of the Lombardesque style.
They are the work of Marco Cozzi of Vicenza and were executed between 1461 and 5464.
The library of San Marco contains upwards of 35,000 printed volumes and about 10,000 manuscripts.
Under the republic commercial shipping used to enter Venice by the Tort of San Nicole del Lido and lie along the quay called the Riva degli Schiavoni, in the basin of San Marco, and up the broad Giudecca Canal.
Marco Polo refers to the oil springs of Baku towards the end!of the 13th century; the medicinal properties of the oil of Tegernsee in Bavaria gave it the name of " St Quirinus's Oil " in 1436; the oil of Pechelbronn, Elsass, was discovered in 1498, and the " earthbalsam " of Galicia was known in 1506.
4-9), who is said to have spent part of the year 1304, during his exile from Florence, in the castle of Lizzana, between Marco and Rovereto.
Marco Polo mentions such charts; Vasco da Gama (1498) found them in the hands of his Indian pilot, and their nature is fully explained in the Mohit or encyclopaedia of the sea compiled from ancient sources by the Turkish admiral Sidi Ali Ben Hosein in 1554.1 These charts are covered with a close network of lines intersecting each other at right angles.
Very inadequate use has been made of the travels of Marco Polo, Nicolo de' Conti, and of others in the east.
Such an error could never have arisen had the old compilers of maps taken the trouble to plan Marco Polo's routes.
Expeditions against the Yemen and Cyprus were successful, but the loss of Cyprus, accompanied as it was by the barbarous murder of the Venetian commander, Marco Antonio Bragadino, by the seraskier pasha Mustafa's orders, in violation of the terms of the capitulation of Famagusta (August 1571), roused the bitter resentment of the Venetians, previously incensed by Turkish raids on Crete.
During the "Frankish" period the island formed part of the duchy of Naxos, except for the few years (1341-1383) when it was a separate lordship under Marco Sanudo and his daughter.
In 1272-1273 Marco Polo and his companions stayed for a time in Badakshan.
John Fleischer (sometimes incorrectly named Fletcher), of Breslau, propounded the same view in a pamphlet, De iridibus doctrina Aristotelis et Vitellonis (1574) the same explanation was given by Franciscus Maurolycus in his Photismi de lumine et umbra (1575) The most valuable of all the earlier contributions to the scientific explanation of rainbows is undoubtedly a treatise by Marco Antonio de Dominis (1566-1624), archbishop of Spalatro.
The Gothic church of San Niccolo (1310-1352) contains a fine tomb by Tullio Lombardo, and a large altarpiece by Fra Marco Pensabene and others; in the church and adjoining chapter-house are frescoes by Tommaso da Modena (1352), some frescoes by whom (life of S.
Kingsze or royal residence), as the greatest city in the world, of whose splendours Odoric, like Marco Polo, Marignolli, or Ibn Batuta, gives notable details.
He is the first European, after Marco Polo, who distinctly mentions the name of Sumatra.
Unc Khan reappears in Marco Polo, who tells much about him as "a great prince, the same that we call Prester John, him in fact about whose great dominion all the world talks."
In the narrative of Marco Polo "Unc Can," alias Prester John, is the liege lord of the Tatars, to whom they paid tribute until Jenghiz arose.
2 It is probable that he was of the same family as the Spanish ecclesiastic Marco Antonio Serveto de Reyes (d.
The fourth was a Calabrian named Marco Tullio, who, knew no Portuguese; he impersonated the "hidden king" at Venice in `1603 and gained many supporters, but was ultimately captured and executed.
Imperatore ed it P. Marco l'Aviano capuccino (Gratz, 1888).
So Marco Polo (i.
Marco at Florence.
Marco di Firenze (Florence, 1855); F.
In the 10th century the Nestorians introduced Christianity into Tartary proper; in 1274 Marco Polo saw two of their churches.
Marco Polo is witness that there were Nestorian churches all along the trade routes from Bagdad to Pekin.
In the north-east corner of the city is the Nestorian church which was noted by Marco Polo, the façade being " elaborately carved and the gates covered with elegantly wrought iron."