Marcion, however (c. A.D.
It purports to be by Paul, and was held to be his by Marcion and in the Muratorian canon, and by Irenaeus, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria, all writing at the end of the 2nd century.
The earlier fathers, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Tertullian, believed in chiliasm simply because it was a part of the tradition of the church and because Marcion and the Gnostics would have nothing to do with it.
Marcion., 3) aimed at a more spiritual conception of the millennial blessings than Papias had, but he still adhered, especially in his Montanistic period, to all the ancient anticipations.
There are many references in Tertullian to the teaching of the Gnostic Marcion, whose breach with the Roman Church may be dated A.D.
In his revised New Testament Marcion speaks of " the covenant which is the mother of us all, which begets us in the holy Church, to which we have vowed allegiance."
1 McGiffert, on the other hand, argues that the Roman Creed was composed to meet the errors of Marcion, p. 58 ff.
Thus Marcion rejected it on the ground of its Jewish character (Tertullian, c. Marcion, iv.
An attempt has been made in some quarters to prove that certain allusions in the epistle imply the rise of the heresy of Marcion and that it cannot therefore be placed earlier than 140.
One occasion Marcion endeavoured to establish relations with him and accosted him with the words, "Recognize us."
In the work Against Marcion, iv.
The views of the Gnostics, and of Marcion as well, seemed to the majority of Christians destructive of the gospel, and it was widely felt that they were too dangerous to be tolerated.
Marcion, we know (c. A.D.
This is the general view of the Church of his time, except the little clique known as the Alogi who rejected the Fourth Gospel, and Marcion who only recognized St Luke.
There are many indications early in the 2nd century of a tendency towards the recognition of a single Gospel; for instance, there are the local Gospels according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians; Marcion had but one Gospel, St Luke, the Valentinians preferred St John and so on; Tatian reduced the Four Gospels to one by means of a Harmony, and it is possible that something of the kind may have existed before he did this.
The list recognized four Gospels, Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, two epistles of John, Jude, Apocalypse of John and (as the text stands) of Peter; there is no mention of Hebrews or (apparently) of 3 John or Epistles of Peter, where it is possible - we cannot say more - that the silence as to t Peter is accidental; the Shepherd of Hermas on account of its date is admitted to private, but not public, reading; various writings associated with Marcion, Valentinus, Basilides and Montanus are condemned.
All writers earlier than the 5th century are valuable, but particularly important are the following groups: (1) Greek writers in the West, especially Justin Martyr, Tatian, Marcion, Irenaeus and Hippolytus; (2) Latin writers in Italy, especially Novatian, the author of the de Rebaptismate and Ambrosiaster; (3) Latin writers in Africa, especially Tertullian and Cyprian; (4) Greek writers in Alexandria, especially Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Athanasius and Cyril; (5) Greek writers in the East, especially Methodius of Lycia and Eusebius of Caesarea; (6) Syriac writers, especially Aphraates and Ephraem; it is doubtful whether the Diatessaron of Tatian ought to be reckoned in this group or in (1).
The Apotheosis and Hamartigenia are polemic, the first against the disclaimers of the divinity of Christ, the latter against the gnostic dualism of Marcion and his followers.
A Marcion (fragment in Irenaeus iv.
The true Basilides, perhaps also Satornil, Marcion and a part of his disciples, Bardesanes and others, were frankly dualists.
The Gnostic Marcion has been rightly characterized as a direct disciple of Paul.
Between these two powers Marcion affirms a sharp and, as it appears, originally irreconcilable dualism which with him rests moreover on a speculative basis.
Thanks to the noble simplicity and specifically religious character of his ideas, Marcion was able to found not only schools, but a community, a church of his own, which gave trouble to the Church longer than any other Gnostic sect.
So Marcion argued that Christ's body was not really flesh and blood, or he could not have called it bread and wine.
There is a mention of Marcion in the same context, but it is unintelligible.
We may thus hope to recover some priceless monuments of early Christianity, hymns and treatises perhaps of Marcion and Bardesanes, the Gospel of Peter, and even the Diatessaron.
375 seq.), who wrote in the 5th century against Marcion and Mani; and the Alexandrian patriarch Eutychius d.
Not only was he master of the contents of the Bible: he also read carefully the works of Hermas, Justin, Tatian, Miltiades, Melito, Irenaeus, Proculus, Clement, as well as many Gnostic treatises, the writings of Marcion in particular.
3) was common to Marcion and Apelles, while the injunction of fasting $ is attributed to the Encratites (Iren.
In pictures and sculptures of the 15th century and earlier, we often find represented this idea, originated by Marcion in the 2nd century.
Among his other publications are: A Dialogue between a Christian and a Jew (1888); a translation (with introduction and notes) of Eusebius's Church History (1890); and The Apostles' Creed (1902), in which he attempted to prove that the old Roman creed was formulated as a protest against the dualism of Marcion and his denial of the reality of Jesus's life on earth.
The heretic Marcion taught a variant, namely, the existence of two Gods, one of the Old Testament of law, the other of the New Testament of grace.
103, and most probably Marcion), when AOVKaP no doubt stood at the head of the Gospel, especially where it was used side by side with the others.
He regarded it as his special task to combat the views of Marcion, of Bardaisan and of Mani.
MARCION and THE Marcionite Churches.
The pure gospel, however, Marcion found to be everywhere more or less corrupted and mutilated in the Christian circles of his time.
This reformation was to deliver Christendom from false Jewish doctrines by restoring the Pauline conception of the gospel, - Paul being, according to Marcion, the only apostle who had.
This of itself shows that it is a mistake to reckon Marcion among the Gnostics.
It is true that in many features his Christian system - if we may use the expression - resembles the so-called Gnostic systems; but the first duty of the historian is to point out what Marcion plainly aimed at; only in the second place *have we to inquire how far the result corresponded with those purposes.
The doctrines of Marcion and the history of his churches from the and to the 7th century are known to us from the controversial works of the Catholic fathers.
From Justin onwards, almost every eminent Church teacher takes some notice of Marcion, while very many write extensive treatises against him.
Marcion was a wealthy shipowner, belonging to Sinope in Pontus.
Marcion took up his residence permanently in Rome, but still undertook journeys for the propagation of his opinions.
Still Marcion seems never to have abandoned his design of gaining over the whole Church to his gospel.
The distinctive teaching of Marcion originated in a comparison of the Old Testament with the gospel of Christ and the theology of the apostle Paul.
Overpowered by the majesty and novelty of the Christian message of salvation, too conscientious to rest satisfied with the ordinary attempts at the solution of difficulties, while prevented by the limitations of his time from reaching an historical insight into the relation of Christianity to the Old Testament and to Judaism, he believed that he expressed Paul's view by the 1 Esnik's presentation of the Marcionite system is a late production, and contains many speculations that cannot be charged upon Marcion himself.
It may be said that in the and century only one Christian - Marcion - took the trouble to understand Paul; but it must be added that he misunderstood him.
Marcion alone perceived their decisive religious importance, and with them confronted the legalizing, and in this sense judaizing, tendencies of his Christian contemporaries.
Under the influence of Cerdo, Marcion carried out his ethical dualism in the sphere of cosmology; but the fact that his system is not free from contradictions is the best proof that all along religious knowledge, and not philosophical, had the chief values in his eyes.
He sent his Son (whom Marcion probably regarded as a manifestation of the supreme God Himself) 3 down to this earth in order to redeem men.
Marcion himself was the next raised up by the good God, to proclaim once more the true gospel.
This he did by setting aside the spurious gospels, purging the real gospel (the Gospel of Luke) from supposed judaizing interpolations, and restoring the true text of 2 On the relation of matter to the Creator, Marcion himself seems not to have speculated, though his followers may have done so.
On the basis of these writings Marcion proclaimed the true Christianity, and founded churches.
But he taught further - and here we trace the influence of the current gnosticism on Marcion - that only the spirit of man is saved by the good God; the body, because material, perishes.
For, since, according to Marcion, the spirit of man is derived, not from the good, but from the just God, it is impossible to see why the spiritual should yet be more closely related to the good God than the material.
According to Marcion, the good God never judges, but everywhere manifests His goodness - is, therefore, not to be feared, but simply to be loved, as a father.
Marcion answers, The good God does not judge them, but merely removes them from His presence.
No, says Marcion, but on the contrary - punishes them in his hell !
It is not surprising, therefore, that even in the 2nd century the disciples of Marcion diverged in several directions.
But it was unquestionably from Marcionite impulses that the new sects of the Paulicians and Bogomils arose; and in so far as the western Cathari, and the antinomian and anticlerical sects ' Marcion was the earliest critical student of the New Testament canon and text.
Foakes Jackson's Christian Difficulties of the Second and Twentieth Centuries, is a study of Marcion and his relation to modern thought.