The upper Maranon traverses the department from S.
At the junction of 2 D the Cauches with that river, that Ecuadorean line descends the Chinchipe to the Maranon, and the Peruvian ascends to a point where it is intersected by a line following the eastern Cordillera northward to the head-waters of the Caqueta, or Japura, which forms the northern boundary down to the Brazilian frontier.
No river, except the Maranon, breaks through it either to the east or west, while more than twenty coast streams rise on its slopes and force their way through the maritime chain.
It then continues northward, separating the basins of the Maranon and Huallaga; and at the northern frontier of Peru it is at length broken through by the Maranon flowing eastward.
The eastern range is cut through by six rivers in Peru, namely, the Maranon and Huallaga, the Perene, Mantaro, Apurimac, Vilcamayu and Paucartambo, the last five being tributaries of the Ucayali.
The first, from the north, comprises the upper basins Sec ti of the Maranon and the Huallaga, and is 350 m.
The great rivers of the sierra are the Maranon, rising in the lake of Lauricocha and flowing northward in a deep gorge between the Maritime and Central Cordilleras for 350 m., when it forces its way through the mountains at the famous Pongo de Manseriche and enters the Amazonian plain.
The Maranon, on having burst through the defile of the Pongo de Man seriche (575 ft.
The forests drained by the Maranon, Huallaga and Ucayali form the northern portion of the Peruvian montana.
Long from the Maranon to the Bolivian frontier, is naturally divided into two sections, the sub-tropical forests in the ravines and on the eastern slopes of the Andes, and the dense tropical forests in the Amazonian plain.
Surveys were completed in 1909 for an extension of the Oroya line from a point on its Cerro de Pasco branch eastward to the Ucayali, and another transandean line frequently discussed is projected from Paita across the Andes to Puerto Limon, on the Maranon-a distance of 410 m.
The most important means of communication in the republic is that of its river system, comprising, as it does, the navigable channels of the Maranon, or upper Amazon, and its tributaries.
The rivers forming this system are the Maranon from Puerto Limon to Tabatinga on the Brazilian frontier (484 m.), the Japura, Putumayo, Javary, Napo, Tigre, Huallaga, Ucayali, Pachitea, Jurua, Purus, Acre, Curaray and Aguarico all navigable over parts of their courses for steamers of 4 to 8 f t.
As for the Maranon, it is claimed that steamers of 20 ft.
Its chief port is Iquitos, on the Maranon, 335 m.
From Puerto Bermudez, on the Pachitea or Pichis river, the terminus of a government road and telegraph line, a wireless system connects with Massisea on the Ucayali, and thence with Iquitos, on the Maranon-a distance of 930 m.
The inland port of Iquitos, on the Maranon, is also rated as first class, and enjoys special privileges because of its distance from the national.
The Hevea is found along the water-courses of the lowlands, which includes the large tributaries of the Maranon, while the caucho species flourish on higher ground, above 900 ft.
Pataz, Huanuco, Chuquitambo, Huancavelica, Cuzco, Cotabambas, Aymares, Paucartambo, Santo Domingo and Sandia; the latter wholly on the Amazon slope, in the country about the Pongo de Manseriche and at Chuquibamba, both on the upper Maranon, in the districts of Pataz, Huanuco, Aymares and Antabamba (Apurimac), Paucartambo and Quippicauchi (Cuzco), and Sandia and Carabaya (Puno).
The upper valley of the Maranon has undeveloped gold-bearing lodes.
In addition to the foregoing the government has a few small river boats on the Maranon and its tributaries, which are commanded by naval officers and used to maintain the authority of the republic and carry on geographical and hydrographical work.
The latter state claimed sovereignty over the Napo and Maranon rivers on the grounds of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction exercised over this section of territory during the period of Spanish dominion, the government of Colombia asserting that these ecclesiastical rights to which Colombia became entitled after her separation from the Spanish crown carried also the right of absolute ownership. In a treaty signed by the three interested states in 1895 a compromise was effected by which Colombia withdrew a part of the claim advanced, and it was agreed that any further differences arising out of this frontier question should be submitted to the arbitration of the Spanish crown.
Of the Maranon river.
Lying partly on the arid coast, partly in the high Cordilleras and partly in the valley of the Maranon, it has every variety of climate and productions.
The town is near the Maranon and Jigue rivers, on a plain from which hills rise on all sides except the E., on which side it is open to the winds of the plateau.
The city has a large import and export trade for an immense region watered by the Maranon, Huallaga, Ucayali and other large Amazonian rivers navigated from Iquitos by lines of small boats.
Maranon, the name given to the upper Amazon), a northern state of Brazil, bounded N.
From the Santiago river, a western affluent of the Maranon, the boundary line runs south-west and west across the Andes to the head waters of the Macara, down that stream to the Chira, or Achira,whose channel marks the frontier down to about 80° 17' W., where a small stream (the Rio Alamo) enters from the north.
There are two distinct hydrographic systems in Ecuador - the streams that flow south-eastward to the Maranon, or Amazon, and those which flow westward to the Pacific. The southern Ravers.
Like most of the large Amazon tributaries, its discharge into the Maranon is through several distinct channels.
The other rivers which flow through the Oriente territory of Ecuador into the Maranon are the Tigre, Pastaza, Morona and Santiago.
It enters the Maranon very near the 74th meridian.
After flowing southward along the base of the high Andes for a short distance and receiving a number of torrents from the snowclad heights, it turns south-eastward across the plain and enters the Maranon about 70 m.
The Morona follows a very tortuous course before entering the Maranon, at long.
The Santiago, which enters the Maranon near the Pongo de Manseriche, is formed by the confluence of the Paute, which rises in the province of Azuay, and the Zamora, which has its source among the mountains of Loja.
The Maranon river forms the greater part of its W.
The capital, Chachapoyas, is a small town (pop. about 6000) situated on a tributary of the Maranon, 7600 ft.
We are disposed to agree with the Brazilian historian Constancio that Maranon is derived from the Spanish word marana, a tangle, a snarl, which well represents the bewildering difficulties which the earlier explorers met in navigating not only the entrance to the Amazon, but the whole island-bordered, river-cut and indented coast of the now Brazilian province of Maranhao.
It is generally accepted by geographers that the Maranon, or Upper Amazon, rises in the little lake, Lauricocha, in io° 30' S.
There is a difference among geographers as to where the Maranon ends and the Amazon begins, or whether both names apply to the same river.
The Pongo de Manseriche, at the base of the Andes and the head of useful navigation, seems to be the natural terminus of the Maranon; and an examination of the hydrographic conditions of the great valley makes the convenience and accuracy of this apparent.
Raimondi terminates the Maranon at the mouth of the Ucayali, Reclus the same, both following the missionary fathers of the colonial period.
De la Condamine uses " Amazon " and " Maranon " indiscriminately and considers them one and the same.
Wolf, apparently uncertain, carries the " Maranon or Amazon " to the Peruvian frontier of Brazil at Tabatinga.
The former accepted the name Maranon in Peru, and as the missionaries penetrated the valley they extended the name until they reached the mouth of the Ucayali; while, as the Portuguese ascended the Amazon, they carried this name to the extent of their explorations.
The river Maranon rises about too m.
Just below this the mountains close in on either side of the Maranon, forming narrows or pongos for a length of 35 m., where, besides numerous whirlpools, there are no less than thirty-five formidable rapids, the series concluding with three cataracts just before reaching the river Imasa or Chunchunga, near the mouth of which La Condamine embarked in the t8th century to descend the Amazon.
The Pongo de Manseriche was first named Maranon, then Santiago, and later Manseric, afterwards Mansariche and Manseriche, owing to the great numbers of parrakeets found on the rocks there.
Through this dark canon the Maranon leaps along, at times, at the rate of 12 m.
He fitted out an expedition at Loxa in Ecuador, descended the Rio Santiago to the Maranon, passed through the perilous Pongo in 1557 and invaded the country of the Maynas Indians.
There is an ancient tradition of the savages of the vicinity that one of their gods descending the Maranon and another ascending the Amazon to communicate with him, they opened the pass called the Pongo de Manseriche.
Swollen by their many affluents, they reach the lowlands and unite their waters to form the Santiago, which flows into the Maranon at the head of the Pongo de Manseriche.
In the 16th century the Spanish explorer Orellana asserted that he had come into conflict with fighting women in South America on the river Maranon, which was named after them the Amazon or river of the Amazons, although others derive its name from the Indian amassona (boat-destroyer), applied to the tidal phenomenon known as the " bore."