A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
It is used by perfumery manufacturers as an ingredient.
Before 1716 ordnance was obtained from private manufacturers and proved by the Board of Ordnance.
They are not, as a rule, supported by workmen or peasants, but rather by small tradespeople, manufacturers and farmers.
It is proportional, and is collected by deduction from salaries and pensions paid to servants of the state, where it is assessed on three-eighths of the income, and from interest on consolidated stock, where it is assessed on the whole amount; and by register in the cases of private individuals, who pay on three-fourths of their income, professional men, capitalists or manufacturers, who pay on one-half or nine-twentieths of their income.
The use of pharmacopoeia preparations made by manufacturers is allowed, but the seller is held responsible for their purity and strength.
With the opening of the Russian railway from the Caspian to Merv, Bokhara and Samarkand in 1886-1887, Russian manufacturers were enabled to compete in Central Asia with their western rivals, and the value of European manufactures passing Meshed in transit was much reduced.
Many Copenhagen Jews achieved distinction as manufacturers, merchants and bankers, and among famous Jewish men of letters may be specially named Georg Brandes.
Commercial supremacy required not so much highly trained intelligence amongst manufacturers and merchants as keen business instinct and a certain rude energy.
Fambri was ruined by his enterprise, but other manufacturers, more expert than he, drew profit from his initiative, and founded flourishing factories at Pellestrina and Burano.
At the close of the war in 1815 the revival of trade led to an increased demand, and the progress of cotton cultivation in America became rapid and continuous, until at length about 85% of the raw material used by English manufacturers was derived from this one source.
The general movement for the extension of cotton cultivation wa.s welcomed by the International Congress of representatives of master cotton spinners and manufacturers' associations at the meeting at Zurich in May 1904.
In response to the demand, manufacturers have succeeded in producing transformer plate in which the loss of energy due to hysteresis is exceedingly small.
A noteworthy feature is the attention paid by the manufacturers to the well-being of their workpeople.
Numbers of English artisans and shipbuilders, Swedish ironfounders, German engineers and French manufacturers sought fortunes in the new country, and diffused industry by their example.
He advocated the repeal of the corn-laws, not essentially in order to make food cheaper, but because it would develop industry and enable the manufacturers to get labour at low but sufficient wages; and he assumed that other countries would be unable to compete with England in manufactures under free trade, at the prices which would be possible for English manufactured products.
Fourteen members are elected by such citizens of Bremen (city) as have enjoyed a university education, forty by the merchants, twenty by the manufacturers and artisans, and forty-eight by the other citizens.
The wholesale jam manufacturers of the present day use this sugar; they boil the jam in vacuo and secure a product that will last a long time without deteriorating, but it lacks the delicacy and distinctive flavour of fruit preserved by a careful housekeeper, who boils it in an open pan with cane sugar to a less density, though exposed for a short time to a greater heat.
The manufacturers who have adopted this system assert that, as compared with other methods, not only do they obtain an increased yield of sugar of better quality, but that they do so at a less cost for running their machines and with a reduced expenditure in sugar and " clairce."
In Germany the enterprise came to an end almost entirely with the downfall of Napoleon I.; but in France, where at first more scientific and economical methods of working were introduced, the manufacturers were able to keep the industry alive.
Paper is a monopoly in Greece, and Grecian cigarette manufacturers, to escape the monopoly, have transferred their business to Egypt, where they make cigarettes from Grecian tobaccos by the aid of Greek workmen.
Havana cigars are, as regards form, classification, method of putting up and nomenclature, the models followed by manufacturers of all classes of the goods.
The Providence Association of Mechanics and Manufacturers, incorporated in 1789, organized industrial development.
The struggle, which lasted for several years, and in fact is not yet entirely over, was one between the cities and the country, between the manufacturers and the agriculturists.
The three Kenzan, of whom the third died in 1820; Ebisei; the four DOhachi, of whom the fourth was still alive in 1909; the Kagiya family, manufacturers of the celebrated KinkOzan ware; Hozan, whose imitations of Delft faience and his pdte-sur-pd~e pieces with fern-scroll decoration remain incomparable; Taizan YOhei, whose ninth descendant of the same name now produces fine specimens of Awata ware for foreign markets; Tanzan YOshitaro and his son Rokuro, to whose credit stands a new departure in the form of faience having p.~te-sur-p&e decoration of lace patterns, diapers and archaic designs executed in low relief with admirable skill and minuteness; the two Bizan, renowned for their representations of richly apparelled figures as decorative motives; Rokubei, who studied painting under Maruyama Okyo and followed the naturalistic style of that great artist; Mokubei, the first really expert manufacturer of translucid porcelain in Kioto; Shuhei, Kintei, and above all, Zengoro HOzen, the celebrated potter of Eiraku waresthese names and many others give to KiOto ceramics an eminence as well as an individuality which few other wares of Japan can boast.
But as Fox on this occasion aided the vested interests of some English manufacturers he secured a certain revival of popularity.
It was found, however, that certain classes were addicted to drinking this mixture, and since 1891 the sale of such spirit has been confined to manufacturers who must purchase it in bulk from the "methylators."
Notwithstanding this permission there have been many agitations on the part of chemical manufacturers to obtain a less restricted use of absolute alcohol, and in 1905 an Industrial Alcohol Committee was appointed to receive evidence and report as to whether any modification of the present law was advisable.
This mixture is supplied to manufacturers and corresponds to the British unmineralized methylated spirit; but the regulations are more stringent.
The purity of the carbide entirely depends on the purity of the material used in its manufacture, and before this fact had been fully grasped by manufacturers, and only the purest material obtainable employed, it contained notable quantities of compounds which during its decomposition by water yielded a somewhat high pro portion of impurities in the acetylene generated from it.
(Cambridge, 1870; Bulletin of National Association of Wool Manufacturers), and literature therein referred to.
During the great trade "boom" of 1905 there was a good deal of buying by exporters in advance of their indents because manufacturers continued to contract engagements which threatened to exclude dilatory buyers.
Some manufacturers devote themselves exclusively to the home trade, and some exclusively to foreign trade, but there is a large class with what may be called a margin of alternation, which serves to redress the balance as business in one or other of the sections is good or bad.
By far the majority of Lancashire manufacturers sell their goods as they come from the loom, or, as it is called, in the "grey state," but an increasing number now cultivate the trade in finished goods.
Some manufacturers now go to the shopkeeper, and this has made it difficult for the merchant with a limited capital and therefore a limited assortment to survive.
The great general houses such as Rylands's, Philips's and Watt's in Manchester, and Cook's and Pawson's in London, some of which are manufacturers to a minor degree, continue to flourish because under one roof they can supply all that the draper requires, and so enable him to economize in the time spent in buying and to save himself the trouble of attending to many accounts.
In the United States there has been an arduous struggle over this question, and combinations of merchants have sometimes compelled favourable terms. In England, though the merchant has maintained a great part of the trade with shopkeepers, the developing trade with makers of shirts, underclothing, &c., is mainly done by the manufacturers directly, and perhaps the simplification of relations by direct dealing in the cotton trade has now reached a point of fairly stable compromise.
Those manufacturers who act as merchants aim to retain the merchant profit and must employ a merchant capital in stocks.
It must be noted, however, that while most of the spinning concerns are worked by limited companies or individuals with a considerable capital, a good many small manufacturers exist who have little capital and are practically financied by their agents or customers.
The profits of manufacturers, merchants and shopkeepers are commonly very much less on the lower classes of cotton goods than on the higher ones.
As buyers of finished goods for London and the country do not attend it, certain departments of the home trade are hardly represented, but practically all the spinners and manufacturers and all the export merchants of any importance are subscribers.
Transactions between spinners and manufacturers are largely effected on Tuesdays and Fridays, the old "market days," when the manufacturing towns are well represented, but a large amount of business is transacted every day.