The manubrium is absent altogether in the fresh-water medusa Limnocnida, in which the diameter of the mouth exceeds half that of the umbrella; on the other hand, the manubrium may attain a great length, owing to the centre of the sub-umbrella with the stomach being drawn into it, as it were, to form a long proboscis, as in Geryonia.
The mouth may be a simple, circular pore at the extremity of the manubrium, or by folding of the edges it may become square or shaped like a Maltese cross, with four corners and four lips.
The stomach may be altogether lodged in the manubrium, from which the radial canals then take origin directly as in Geryonia (Trachomedusae); it may be with or without gastric pouches.
That is to say, in a radial direction from, or (in the manubrium) parallel to, the same ideal axis.
The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."
Buds may be produced from the manubrium, radial canals, ring-canal, or tentaclebases, or from an aboral stolon (Narcomedusae).
Hence the gonads are found on the manubrium in Anthomedusae generally; on the base of the manubrium, or under the gastral pouches, or in both these situations (Octorchidae), or under the radial canals, in Trachomedusae; under the gastral pouches or radial canals, in Narcomedusae.
41, B), where, however, the tentacles have quite disappeared, and the circular rim formed by the margin of the umbrella has nearly closed over the manubrium leaving only a small aperture through which the embryos emerge.
That the sporosac should not be compared simply with the manubrium of the medusa, as is sometimes done.
The endodermal spadix (sp) of the sporosac represents the endoderm of the manubrium; the ectodermal lining of the sporosac (ex.) represents the ex-umbral ectoderm of the medusa; and the intervening layers, together with the sub-umbral cavity, have disappeared.
44, E), and at the same time the base of the cup is thrust upwards to form the manubrium (m), converting the cavity of the entocodon into a space which is crescentic or horse-shoe-like in section.
Finally, a mouth is formed by breaking through at the apex of the manubrium, and the now fully-formed medusa becomes separated by rupture of the stalk of the bud and swims away.
45, C, ed.) may be formed over all, as in Garveia, &c.; or the entocodon may remain solid and without cavity until after the formation of the manubrium, or may never acquire a cavity at all, as described above for the gonophores.
It is seen from the foregoing account of medusa - budding that the entocodon is a very important constituent of the bud, furnishing some of the most essential portions of the medusa; its cavity becomes the subumbral cavity, and its lining furnishes the ectodermal epithelium of the manubrium and of the sub-umbral cavity as far as the edge of the velum.
If the three principal organ-systems of the medusa, namely mouth, tentacles and umbrella, be considered in the light of phylogeny, it is evident that the manubrium bearing the mouth must be the oldest, as representing a common property of all the Coelentera, even of the gastrula embryo of all Enterozoa.
The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
The buds of Margellium are produced on the manubrium in each of the four interradii, and they arise from the ectoderm, that is to say, the germinal epithelium, which later gives rise to the gonads.
The buds do not appear simultaneously but successively on each of the 1 four sides of the manubrium, thus: 3 4 and secondary buds.
III, Hypothetical transition from II to the indirect method with an entocodon; the formation of the manubrium is retarded, that of the umbrella hastened (IIIa, b).
Mechnikov considered the plate thus formed at the base of the polyp as equivalent to the umbrella, and the body of the polyp as equivalent to the manubrium, of the medusa; on this view the marginal tentacles almost invariably present in medusae are new formations, and the tentacles of the polyp are represented in the medusa by the oral arms which may occur round the mouth, and which sometimes, e.g.
B, The long manubrium, bearing medusiform buds; a, mouth.
The gonads are borne on the manubrium, either forming a continuous ring (Codonid type), or four masses or pairs of masses (Oceanid type).
Manubrium and In C the marsupium (m) is formed as finger-like another below the process from the summit of the blastostyle, en closing the acrocyst; b, medusa-buds on the radial canal in blastostyle.
The manubrium bearing the gonads is mouthless, and the umbrella is without tentacles, sense-organs, velum or radial canals.
The stomach may be drawn out into the manubrium, forming a proboscis (" Magenstiel ") of considerable length.
- Four radial canals, four gonads; stomach not prolonged into the manubrium, which is relatively short; tentaculocysts free.
Olindiadae, with four radial canals and four gonads; manubrium short; ring-canals giving off blind centripetal canals; tentaculocysts enclosed.
Eight radial canals, eight gonads, stomach not prolonged into manubrium; tentaculocysts enclosed.
Four or six radial canals; gonads band-like; stomach prolonged into a manubrium of great length; tentaculocysts enclosed.
It differs from Limnocodium in having practically no manubrium but a wide mouth two-thirds the diameter of the umbrella across.
68, k), absent in Chondrophorida and Cystophorida; they are contractile and resemble, both in appearance, structure and function, the umbrella of a medusa, with radial canals, ring-canal and velum; but they are without manubrium, tentacles or sense-organs, and are always bilaterally symmetrical, a peculiarity of form related with the fact that they are attached on one side to the stem.
The fused basal segments of the appendages form the "manubrium" of the spring, which carries the two "dentes" (usually elongate II.
A, malleate, with crop: this is followed enlarged view of malleus above - the by the crop-gizzard, Y-shaped incus consists of a short median also ciliated except fulcrum bearing two large rami, each of behind, where it is which is in contact with a stout malleus hardened into a set consisting of a toothed uncus carried on a of articulated sclerites long manubrium; b, sub-malleate, with (trophi) to form the enlarged view of malleus - the manubria gizzard or mastax.
From the centre of the subumbral surface hangs down the manubrium, like the handle of an umbrella or the clapper of a bell, bearing the mouth at its extremity.
The manubrium may be excessively long or very short, and in rare cases absent, the mouth then being flush with the subumbral surface.
The mouth may be circular or four-cornered, and in the latter case the manubrium at the angles of the mouth may become drawn out into four lappets, the oral arms, each with a groove on its inner side continuous with the corner FIG.
The exumbral surface is uppermost, the subumbral surface, with the manubrium and mouth, is facing downwards.
The mouth leads at once into the true digestive cavity, divisible into an oesophageal region in the manubrium and a more dilated cavity, the stomach (st.), occupying the centre of the umbrella.
I), they are formed on the subumbral surface, either on the manubrium or under the stomach or under the radial canals, or in more than one of these regions.
Medusae often have the power of budding, and the buds are formed either on the manubrium, or at the margin of the umbrella, or on an outgrowth or "stolon" produced from the exumbral surface.
The stomach may be situated in the disk, or may be drawn out into the base of the manubrium, so that the disk is occupied only by the radial canals.
C,C', D,D', two types of medusa organization; C and D are composite sections, showing a radius (R) on one side, an interradius (IR) on the other; C' and D' are plans; the mouth and manubrium are indicated at the centre, leading into the gastral cavity subdivided by the four areas of concrescence in each interradius (IR).