The borough, composed of three townships identical with the ancient manors of Salford, Pendleton and Broughton, is for the most part separated from Manchester by the river Irwell, which is crossed by a series of bridges.
In the reign of Edward the Confessor Wem was held as four manors, but at the time of the Domesday Survey William Pantulf was holding the whole as one manor of Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, from whom it passed to the Botelers, barons of Wem.
The see of Worcester and the archbishopric of York had been held together before 1062 by Archbishop Aldred, who, when he was compelled to resign Worcester, retained twelve manors belonging to the see, which Wulfstan did not recover for some years.
The only alien priories granted were Abberbury in Oxfordshire, Wedon Pinkney in Northamptonshire, Romney in Kent, and St Clare and Llangenith in Wales, all very small affairs, single manors and rectories, and these did not form a quarter of the whole endowment.
In the meantime the Six Nations (in 1768) had repudiated their sale of the region to the Susquehanna Company and had sold it to the Penns; the Penns had erected here the manors of Stoke and Sunbury, the government of Pennsylvania had commissioned Charles Stewart, Amos Ogden and others to lay out these manors, and they had arrived and taken possession of the block-house and huts at Mill Creek in January 1769.
It was one of the ancient manors of the Butlers, who received for it the grant of a fair from Henry VIII.
Although there is evidence of Roman and Saxon occupation of the site, the earliest mention of Brighton (Bristelmeston, Brichelmestone, Brighthelmston) is the Domesday Book record that its three manors belonged to Earl Godwin and were held by William de Warenne.
The metropolitans had peculiars within the dioceses of their comprovincials wherever they had residences or manors, and some whose origin is uncertain, e.g.
The next tsar, Alexis, however, by his code instituted a " Monastery Court," which was a secular tribunal composed of laymen, to judge in civil suits against spiritual persons, and in matters arising out of their manors and properties (ib.
We cannot be certain, indeed, how far the Frankish lords oppressed their Syrian tenants: the stories of such oppression have been discredited; while if we may trust the evidence of a Mahommedan traveller, Ibn Jubair, the lot of the Mahommedan who lived on Frankish manors was better than it had been under their native lords.'
Henry VII., while confirming this charter in 1505, granted further that the burgesses should hold their town and soke with all the manors in the soke on payment of a fee farm.
In 1623 Ralph Salvin tried to regain the manor of Doncaster from the mayor and burgesses, who, fearing that the case would go against them, agreed to pay about £3000, in return for which he gave up his claim to all the manors in the soke.
In 1552, as the two manors of Ashburton Borough and Ashburton Foreign, it was sold by the bishop, and subsequently became crown property.
ALE-CONNER, an officer appointed yearly at the court-leet of ancient English manors for the assize of ale and ale-measures.
Ancient demesne signified lands or manors vested in the king at the time of the Norman Conquest.
The greater part of the land in this section was comprised in vast estates such as Rensselaerwyck, Livingston, Scarsdale, Phillipse, Pelham and Van Cortlandt manors, and on these the leasehold system with perpetual leases, leases for 99 years or leases for one to three lives had become general.
The districts included preserve the names of ancient manors, and in Canonbury, which belonged as early as the 13th century to the priory of St Bartholomew, Smithfield, traces of the old manor house remain.
Two manors of Padstow are mentioned later - the prior of Bodmin's manor, which included the rectory, and a manor which passed from the Bonvilles to the Greys, marquesses of Dorset, both of which were eventually acquired by the family of Prideaux.
Edward VI., settling both manors upon the princess Elizabeth, rebuilt Enfield Palace for her.
In 1086 three manors of Lyme are mentioned: that belonging to Sherborne abbey, which was granted at the dissolution to Thomas Goodwin, who alienated it in the following year; that belonging to Glastonbury, which seems to have passed into lay lands during the middle ages, and that belonging to William Belet.
As to the nature of Malcolm's homage, whether for Scotland (Freeman), or for manors and a subsidy in England(Robertson), historians disagree.
In the 12th century it was formed into eight distinct manors, seven of which were held by the same number of prebendaries.
It is also to be noticed that the Domesday Survey constantly mentions the terra villanorum as opposed to the demesne in the estates or manors of the time, and that the land of the rustics is taxed separately for the geld, so that the distinction between the property of the lord and that of the peasant dependent on him is clearly marked and by no means devoid of practical importance.
There was one exception to this harsh treatment of villeins, namely, the rustic tenantry in manors of ancient demesne, that is, in estates which had belonged to the crown before the Conquest, had a standing-ground even against their lords as regards the tenure of their plots and the fixity of their services.
Technically this right was limited to the inhabitants of manors entered in the Domesday Survey as terra regis of Edward the Confessor.
On the other hand the doctrine became effective if the manors in question had been granted by later kings to subjects, because if they remained in the hand of the king the only remedy against ejectment and exaction lay in petitioning for redress without any definite right to the latter.
If, however, the two conditions mentioned were forthcoming, villeins, or, as they were technically called, villein socmen of ancient demesne manors, could resist any attempt of their lords to encroach on their rights by depriving them of their holdings or increasing the amount of their customary services.
If this were the only doctrine applicable in the case there would be no reason why similar protection should be denied to all those who held under grantees of manors escheated after the Conquest.
There is evidence to show, for instance, that the manors of the abbey of Ramsey were managed on the system of enforced labour right down to the middle of the 15th century, and, of course, survivals of these customs in the shape of scattered services lived on much longer.
On the motion of the Estate of Peasants, which had a long memory for aristocratic abuses, the question of the recovery of the alienated crown lands was brought before the Riksdag, and, despite the stubborn opposition of the magnates, a resolution of the Diet directed that all countships, baronies, domains, manors and other estates producing an annual rent of more than 70 per annum should revert to the Crown.
On the 10th of May 1356 Wykeham first appears in the direct employment of the king, being appointed clerk of the king's works in the manors of Henley and Yeshampsted (Easthampstead) to pay all outgoings and expenses, including wages of masons and carpenters and other workmen, the purchase of stone, timber and other materials, and their carriage, under the view of one controller in Henley and two in Easthampstead.
On the 10th of July 1359 Wykeham was made chief keeper and surveyor, not only of Windsor, but of the castles of Dover, Hadley and Leeds (Kent), and of the manors of Foliejohn, Eton, Guildford, Kennington, Sheen (now Richmond), Eltham and Langly and their parks, with power to repair them and to pay for workmen and materials.
At a very early time the lords of manors exercised or claimed certain jurisdictional franchises.
Before the Norman Conquest seven thanes held it of Edward the Confessor as seven manors, but William the Conqueror granted the whole to Ilbert de Lacy, and at the time of the Domesday Survey it was held of him by Ralph Paganel, who is said to have raised Leeds castle, possibly on the site of an earlier fortification.
According to Domesday, Streatham included several manors, two of which, Tooting and Balham (to follow the modern nomenclature), belonged to the abbot of St Mary de Bec in Normandy.
1330); the queen suffered nothing worse than complete exclusion from power, and lived for more than twenty years in retirement on the manors of her dowry.
His debts increased daily, but payment was there none, for all the manors and posses- Condition sions that pertained to the crown he had given away, ~ountry.
Some lords of manors and of hundreds held a court of their own for view of frankpledge, and in the 13th century it may be fairly said "of all the franchises, the royal rights in private hands, view of frankpledge is perhaps the commonest."
Bolton, History of the Several Towns, Manors and Patents of Westchester County (New York, 1881), and J.
Materials for forming such an estimate no doubt exist, but before doing so we have to study in infinite detail a vast number of separate manors, municipalities or other separate economic areas.
Bradford, which is mentioned as having belonged before 1 066, with several other manors in Yorkshire, to one Gamel, appears to have been almost destroyed during the conquest of the north of England and was still waste in r086.
Hence there arose, almost at once, a bitter strife between the lords of manors and the laboring class, both landholding and landless.
Before the process of subinfeudation became prevalent, the most ancient manors were the districts which we call by that name when speaking of the tenants, or "townships" when we regard the inhabitants, or "parishes" as to matters ecclesiastical.