The genesis of Mandaeis.m and the older gnosis from the old and elaborate BabylonioChaldaean religion is clearly seen also in the fact that the names of the old pantheon (as for example those of the planetary divinities) are retained, but their holders degraded to the position of demons - a conclusion confirmed by the fact that the Mandaeans, like the allied Ophites, Peratae and Manichaeans, certainly have their original seat in Mesopotamia and Babylonia.
7), and subsequently among the Manichaeans, and is frequently quoted from Origen downwards (Horn.
Lxviii., as current among the Manichaeans and heretics.
I), the Manichaeans (Augustine,.
The same idea of the fall of mankind in the pagan Gnosticism of " Poimandres "; see Reitzenstein, Poimandres (1904); and the position of the Primal Man (Urmensch) among the Manichaeans is similar.
30.6, the Mandaeans (Brandt, Religion der Mandder, p. 36), and the Manichaeans (Baur, Religionssystem, p. 118 seq.).
And it is interesting to observe how, e.g., St Augustine, though desperately combating the dualism of the Manichaeans, yet afterwards introduced a number of dualistic ideas into Christianity, which are distinguishable from those of Manichaeism only by a very keen eye, and even then with difficulty.
In this alphabet the sacred books of the Manichaeans were written, even at a later period.
It was this work which the Manichaeans set up in opposition to the Gospels.
The later Western Manichaeans termed those portions of light which are scattered throughout the world - in its elements and organisms - awaiting their deliverance, the Jesus patibilis.
According to the teaching of some Manichaeans, it was the primal man who disseminated the true gnosis in the character of Christ.
The worshipper turned towards the sun, or the moon, or the north, as the seat of light; but it is erroneous to conclude from this, as has been done, that in Manichaeism the sun and moon were themselves objects of worship. Forms of prayer used by the Manichaeans have been preserved to us in the Fihrist.
A distinction was made in the community between the electi (perfecti), the perfect Manichaeans, and the catechumeni (auditores), the secular Manichaeans.
The worship of the Manichaeans must have been very simple, and must have essentially consisted of prayers, hymns and ceremonies of adoration.
The Manichaeans too, at least in the West, appear to have adapted themselves to the Church's system of festivals.
It may be held as undoubted that the later Manichaeans celebrated mysteries analogous to Christian baptism and the Lord's Supper, which may have rested upon ancient consecration rites and other ceremonies instituted by Mani himself and having their origin in nature worship.
The Manichaeans of Chinese Turkestan also used a version of the Shepherd of Hermas.
The fragments are Boo in number, both on paper and vellum, written and adorned with the pious care and good taste which the Manichaeans are known to have bestowed on their manuscripts.
The Western Manichaeans of the 4th and 5th centuries are much more like Christians than their Eastern brethren.
Towards the close of the 10th century, at the time the Fihirst was written, the Manichaeans in Mesopotamia and Persia had already been in large measure ousted from the towns, and had withdrawn to the villages.
If we may take the edict of Diocletian against the Manichaeans as genuine, the system must have gained a firm footing in the West by the beginning of the 4th century, but we know that as late as about the year 325 Eusebius had not any accurate knowledge of the sect.
In its rejection of this doctrine Manichaeism agreed with Neo-Platonism; but, while the latter, notwithstanding all its attempts to conform itself to Christianity, could find no formula by which to inaugurate within its own limits the special veneration of Christ, the Western Manichaeans succeeded in giving their teaching a Christian tinge.
Augustine in his later writings against the Manichaeans deals chiefly with the following problems: (I) the relation between knowledge and faith, and between reason and authority; (2) the nature of good and evil, and the origin of the latter; (3) the existence of free will, and its relation to the divine omnipotence; (4) the relation of the evil in the world to the divine government.
The struggle with the Paulicians and the Bogomiles, who were often simply identified with the Manichaeans, again directed attention to the latter.
We hear of Manichaeans (C.D.
In particular he persecuted mercilessly the Manichaeans and all kinds of freethinkers.
The Manichaeans held that in every act of begetting, human or otherwise, a soul is condemned afresh to a cycle of misery by imprisonment in flesh - a thoroughly Indian notion, under the influence of which their perfect or elect ones scrupulously abstained from flesh.
Their belief made them, like the Manichaeans, hostile to material portraiture of Christ, especially of his sufferings on the cross.
To the same class belong the treatise To Ablavius, against the tritheists; On Faith, against the Arians; On Common Notions, in explanation of the terms in current employment with regard to the Trinity; Ten Syllogisms, against the Manichaeans; To Theophilus, against the Apollinarians; an Antirrhetic against the same; Against Fate, a disputation with a heathen philosopher; De anima et resurrectione, a dialogue with his dying sister Macrina; and the Oratio catechetica magna, an argument for the incarnation as the best possible form of redemption, intended to convince educated pagans and Jews.
Among the Gnostics and Manichaeans it existed in its most developed type, and in a milder form it is to be found even in the writings of the orthodox teachers.
To this class belonged Dositheus, Saturninus, Cerdo, Marcion and their followers, the Ophites, Manichaeans and others.
In the East also many Marcionites went over to the Manichaeans; but there they survived much longer.
There the seat of its pontiff was at Samarkand; thence it penetrated into Central Atia, where, buried in the desert sands which entomb the cities of eastern Turkestan, numerous fragments of the works of Mani and his disciples, in the Persian language (Pahlavi) and Syrian script, and in an East Iranian dialect, called Sogdian, which was used by the Manichaeans of Central Asia, have been discovered (K.
973) compared the doctrines of the Greeks, Christians, Jews, Manichaeans and Sufis with the philosophies and religions of India.
Other similar works are his treatise in four books against the Manichaeans and Paulicians, and his controversy with the Latins on the Procession of the Holy Spirit.