Against Manichaean dualism he had vindicated free will; but as against Pelagianism he taught the bondage of sinful man - a position accepted in the East but never welcome there, and not more than half welcome even in the West.
Scepticism, with which P. Bayle had played as a historian - he amused himself, too, with praising the Manichaean solution of the riddle of the universe - became a serious power in the history of philosophy with the advent of David Hume.
3 Intuitionalism in its turn may harden out of " natural " dualism into moral dualism; either a literally Manichaean scheme - a good God impeded by an evil personality or principle (Bayle) - or belief in a good God of limited powers (Mill).
Into these regions descended Hibil the brilliant, in the power of Mana rabba, just as in the Manichaean mythology the "primal man," armed with the elements of the king of light, descends to a contest with the primal devil.
She is the mother of Ur, the personified fire of hell, who in anger and pride made a violent onset on the world of light, but was mastered by Hibil and thrown in chains down to the "black water," and imprisoned within seven iron and seven golden walls.
Hibil's contest with darkness has its prototype in Marduk's battle with chaos, the dragon Tiamat, which (another striking parallel) partially swallows Marduk, just as is related of Hibil and the Manichaean primal man.
On the one hand there were during the middle ages sects, like the Catharists and Albigenses, whose "opposition as a rule developed itself from dualistic or pantheistic premises (surviving effects of old Gnostic or Manichaean views)" and who "stood outside of ordinary Christendom, and while no doubt affecting many individual members within it, had no influence on church doctrine."
Trans., 1861-1862); the Gnostic and Manichaean heresies in the works of Mansel, Matter and Beausobre; the medieval heresies in Hahn's Geschichte der Ketzer im Mittelalter (1846-1850), and Preger's Geschichte der deutschen 111 - ystik (1875); Quietism in Heppe's Geschichte der quietistischen Mystik (1875); the Pietist sects in Palmer's Gemeinschaften and Secten Warttembergs (1875); the Reformation and 17th-century heresies and sects in the Anabaptisticum et enthusiasticum Pantheon and geistliches Ri st-Haus (1702).
The Manichaean system of dualism, with its severe asceticism, and its individualism, which early passed into antinomianism, was attractive to many minds in the awakening of the 11th century.
This first came into prominence in the opening decades of the 2nd century A.D., but is certainly older; it reached its height in the second third of the same century, and began to wane about the 3rd century, and from the second half of the 3rd century onwards was replaced by the closely-related and more powerful Manichaean movement.
These Persian fancies can hardly be borrowed from the Christian Gnostic systems, their definiteness and much more strongly dualistic character recalling the exposition of the Mandaean (and Manichaean) system, are proofs to the contrary.
Finally, in the Manichaean system, as is well known, the Primal Man again assumes the predominant place (Baur, Manich.
The Church when it had once conquered the world allowed such precepts to lapse and fall into the background, and no one save monks or Manichaean heretics remembered them any more; indeed modern divines affect to believe that marriage rites and family ties were the peculiar concern of the Church from the very first; and few moderns will fail to sympathize with the misgivings of the barbarian chief who, having been converted and being about to receive Christian baptism, paused as he stepped down into the font, and asked the priests if in the heaven to which their rites admitted him he would meet and converse with his pagan ancestors.
In genuine Manichaean documents we only find the name Mani, but Manes, Maims, Manichaeus, meet us in 4th-century Greek and Latin documents.
Manichaean tradition relates that Mani received revelations while yet a boy, and assumed a critical attitude towards the religious instruction that was being imparted to him.
The later heads of the Manichaean churches also wrote religious treatises, so that the ancient Manichaean literature must have been very extensive.
These Manichaean dissertations also became known in the Graeco-Roman Empire, and existed in collections.'
There also existed a Manichaean book of memorabilia, and of prayers, in Greek, as well as many others,' all of which were destroyed by the Christian bishops acting in conjunction with the authorities.
A Manichaean epistle, addressed to one Marcellus, has, however, been preserved for us in the Acta Archelai.
3 Manichaean System.
- Though the leading features of Manichaean doctrine can be exhibited clearly even at the present day, and though it is undoubted that Mani himself drew up a complete system, many details are nevertheless uncertain, since they are differently described in different sources, and it often remains doubtful which of the accounts that have been transmitted to us represents the original teaching of the founder.
The Manichaean system is one of consistent, uncompromising dualism, in the form of a fantastic philosophy of nature.
Fabricius has collected the "Greek Fragments of Manichaean Epistles" in his Bibliotheca Graeca (vii.
The same scholar traces back the account by Turbo in the Acts, and the historical data given in the fourth section, to the writings of Turbo, a Mesopotamian, who is assumed to have been a Manichaean renegade and a Christian.
Manichaean ethics is not merely negative, however, since it is necessary to cherish, strengthen and purify the elements of light, as well as free oneself from the elements of darkness.
The aim is not self-destruction, but self-preservation; and yet the ethics of Manichaeism appears in point of fact as thoroughly ascetic. The Manichaean had, above all, to refrain from sensual enjoyment, shutting himself up against it by three seals - the signaculum oris, manus and sinus.
The Manichaean had to pray four times a day, each prayer being preceded by ablutions.
They had also to free themselves as much as possible from the world; but in truth they lived very much as their non-Manichaean fellow-citizens.
For, after all, the Christian monks never quite forgot that salvation is given by God through Christ, whereas the Manichaean electi were actually themselves redeemers.
The distinction between electi and auditores, however, does not exhaust the conception of the Manichaean Church; on the contrary, the latter possessed a hierarchy of three ranks, so that there were altogether five gradations in the community.
One of the teachers appears to have occupied the position of superior at the head of the whole Manichaean Church.
The Christian and Mahommedan historians could learn little of the Manichaean mysteries and "sacraments," and hence the former charged them with obscene rites and abominable usages.
When, however, we turn to the numerous fragments of authentic Manichaean liturgies and hymns lately discovered in Turfan in East Turkestan, Mani's direct indebtedness to the cycle of Magian legends rather than to Chaldaic sources (as Kessler argued) is clearly exhibited.
Later on Zarvan was elevated to the position of supreme principle, creator of Ormazd and Ahriman, and, long 1 Analogous to this is the veneration in which the Catholic monks and the Neoplatonic "` philosophers" were held; but the prestige of the Manichaean electi was greater than that of the monks and the philosophers.
With the exception of a few fragments written in a Pehlevi dialect, all this recovered Manichaean literature is in the Ouigour or Vigur dialect of Tatar.
Finally, the Manichaean doctrines exhibit points of similarity to those of the Christian Elkesaites.
The seat of the Manichaean pope was for centuries in Babylon, at a later period in Samarkand.
Even after the conquests of Islam the Manichaean Church continued to maintain itself, indeed it seems to have become still more widely diffused by the victorious campaigns of the Mahommedans, and it frequently gained secret adherents among the latter themselves.
But in Turkestan, and as far as the Chinese frontier, there existed numerous Manichaean communities and even whole tribes that had adopted the name of Mani.
The only part of the Manichaean mythology that became popular was the crude, physical dualism.
Augustine was an auditor for nine years, while Faustus was at that time the most esteemed Manichaean teacher in the West.
They must be named first, because ancient Manichaean writings have been used in their construction.
An account of a disputation held between Mani and the bishop Archelaus of Cascar, in Mesopotamia; but they nevertheless contain much that is trustworthy, especially regarding the doctrine of Mani, and they also include Manichaean documents.
The "Dispute of Paul the Persian with a Manichaean" in Migne P.G., 88, col.
Religionssystem (1831; in this work Manichaean speculation is exhibited from a speculative standpoint); Fliigel, Mani (1862; a very careful investigation on the basis of the Fihrist); Kessler, Untersuchung zur Genesis des manich.
He had next to repel the invasions of Patzinaks (Petchenegs) and Kumans in Thrace, with whom the Manichaean sects of the Paulicians and Bogomilians made common cause; and thirdly, he had to cope with the fast-growing power of the Turks in Asia Minor.
But in addition to these doctrines of an adoptionist origin, they held the Manichaean dualistic conception of the origin of the world.
According to Slavonic documents the founder of this sect was a certain priest Bogumil, who "imbibed the Manichaean teaching and flourished at the time of the Bulgarian emperor Peter" (927-968).
A fully initiated Manichaean would not even cut his own salad, but employed a catechumen to commit on his behalf this act of murder, for which he subsequently shrived him.
I) the portraiture of a Manichaean elect as drawn by himself: "I have given up father and mother, wife, children and all else that the gospel bids us, and do you ask if I accept the gospel ?
Again not only was the church doctrine itself more or less consciously influenced by the Manichaean tenet of the diabolical origin of all matter, including the human body, but churchmen were also naturally tempted to compete in asceticism with the many heretics who held this tenet, and whose abstinence brought them so much popular consideration.
The long prevalent estimation of Priscillian as a heretic and Manichaean rested upon Augustine, Turibius of Astorga, Leo the Great and Orosius, although at the Council of Toledo in 400, fifteen years after Priscillian's death, when his case was reviewed, the most serious charge that could be brought was the error of language involved in rendering a',' ni ros by innascibilis.
The prejudice we are considering is closely connected with the Manichaean view of matter, which in strict consistency rejected the belief that God was really made flesh, or really died on the cross.
Such was the only religious art permitted by the Christian sentiment of these countries, and also of the large enclaves of semi-Manichaean belief formed in the Balkans by the transportation thither of Armenians and Paulicians.