He certainly shows that the old Assyrian mythology influenced Mani, but not that this element did not reach him through Persian channels.
According to the Fihrist, Mani made use of the Persian and Syriac languages; but, like the Oriental Marcionites before him, he invented an alphabet of his own, which the Fihrist has handed down to us.
Mar Mani will we bless.
The Farmington is a short stream, but the Dukwia is believed to be the lower course of the Mani, which rises as the Tigney (Tige), north of the source of the Cavalla, just south of 8° N.
20 113); with which may be compared the teaching of Mani about the two souls, which it is impossible to follow F.
Muromtsov, they drew up Vyborg and issued a manifesto calling on the Russian people mani- to refuse taxes and military service.
To The use of the word "life" in a personal sense is usual in Gnosticism; compare the Zcoi 7 of Valentin and el-hayat el-muallama, " the dark life," of Mani in the Fihrist.
Like the mysterious 7rp€a135Trls T pfros or senex tertius of Mani, whose becoming visible will betoken the end of the world.
By Ur, Ruha, while P'tahil was engaged in his work of creation, became mother of three sets of seven, twelve and five sons respectively; all were translated by P'tahil to the heavenly firmament (like the Archons of Mani), the first group forming the planets and the next the signs of the zodiac, while the third is as yet undetermined.
Is the king who, by the instigation of the magians, put to a cruel death the prophet Mani, the founder of Manichaeism.
They anathematized Mani, yet were dualists and affirmed two principles - one the heavenly Father, who rules not this world but the world to come; the other an evil demiurge, lord and god of this world, who made all flesh.
The writings and tenets of Mani were widely diffused there.
None the less, the stream of the Gnostic religion is not yet dried up, but continues on its way; and it is beyond a doubt that the later Mandaeanism and the great religious movement of Mani are most closely connected with Gnosticism.
This new faith was that of Mani, which spread with a rapidity only to be explained by supposing that Mithraism had prepared men's minds for its reception.
Mani professed to blend the teachings of Christ with the old Persian Magism.
In genuine Manichaean documents we only find the name Mani, but Manes, Maims, Manichaeus, meet us in 4th-century Greek and Latin documents.
- According to the Mahommedan tradition, which is more trustworthy than the account contained in these Acta, Mani was a high-born Persian of Ecbatana.
If even a small part of the stories about his father is founded on fact, it was he who first introduced Mani to that medley of religions out of which his system arose.
Manichaean tradition relates that Mani received revelations while yet a boy, and assumed a critical attitude towards the religious instruction that was being imparted to him.
It was only when Mani had reached the age of twenty-five or thirty years that he began to proclaim his new religion.
Mani did not remain long in Persia, but undertook long journeys for the purpose of spreading his religion, and also sent forth disciples.
According to the Acta Archelai, his missionary activity extended westwards into the territory of the Christian church; but from Oriental sources it is certain that Mani rather went into Transoxiana, western China, and southwards as far as India.
(c. 270) Mani returned to the Persian capital, and gained adherents even at court.
But the dominant priestly caste of the Magians, on whose support the king was dependent, were naturally hostile to him, and after some successes Mani was made a prisoner, and had then to flee.
Mani himself composed a large number of works and epistles, which were in great part still known to the Mahommedan historians, but are now mostly lost.
The Fihrist reckons seven principal works of Mani, six being in the Syriac and one in the Persian language; regarding some of these we also have information in Epiphanius, Augustine, Titus of Bostra, and Photius, as well as in the formula of abjuration (Cotelerius, PP. Apost.
Besides these principal works, Mani also wrote a large number of smaller treatises and epistles.
- Though the leading features of Manichaean doctrine can be exhibited clearly even at the present day, and though it is undoubted that Mani himself drew up a complete system, many details are nevertheless uncertain, since they are differently described in different sources, and it often remains doubtful which of the accounts that have been transmitted to us represents the original teaching of the founder.
The physical and the ethical are not distinguished, and in this respect the character of the system is thoroughly materialistic; for when Mani co-ordinates good with light, and evil with darkness, this is no mere figure of speech, but light is actually good and darkness evil.
Zittwitz assumes that this epistle was in its original form of much larger extent, and that the author of the Acts took out of it the matter for the speeches which he makes Mani deliver during his disputation with Bishop Archelaus.
Mani, following the example of the gnostic Jewish Christians, appears to have held Adam, Noah, Abraham (perhaps zoroaster and Buddha) to be such prophets.
But at all events Mani himself, on his own claim, is to be reckoned the last and greatest prophet, who took up the work of Jesus impatibilis and of Paul (for he too finds recognition), and first brought full knowledge.
The prayers are addressed to the God of light, to the whole kingdom of light, to the glorious angels, and to Mani himself, who is apostrophized in them as "the great tree, which is all salvation."
At the head stood the teachers (" the sons of meekness," Mani himself and his successors); then follow the administrators (" the sons of knowledge," the bishops); then the elders (" the sons of understanding," the presbyters); the electi (" the sons of mystery"); and finally the auditores (" the sons of insight").
The electi celebrated special feasts; but the principal festival with all classes was the Bema (31ima), the feast of the "teacher's chair," held in commemoration of the death of Mani in the month of March.
It may be held as undoubted that the later Manichaeans celebrated mysteries analogous to Christian baptism and the Lord's Supper, which may have rested upon ancient consecration rites and other ceremonies instituted by Mani himself and having their origin in nature worship.
2) showed that one at least of the fundamental myths of Mani was borrowed from the Avesta, namely, that which recounts how through the manifestation of the virgin of light and of the messenger of salvation to the libidinous princes of darkness the vital substance or light held captive in their limbs was liberated and recovered for the realm of light.
It also may therefore have come to Mani through Magian channels.
Before Mani, Zarvan accompanied Mithras in all his westward migrations.
74 is invoked, together with Jesus and Mani, the "strong mighty Zrosch, the redeemer of souls."
Mar Mani, Jesus - virgin of light, Mar Mani.
There can be no doubt that in the form in which Mani became acquainted with it Christianity had been disengaged and liberated from the womb of Judaism which gave it birth.
It remains to add that in these newly found fragments Mani styles himself" the apostle (lit.
7 and 32) reproduce the ideas and almost the phases of the Syriac "Hymn of the Soul," so confirming the hypothesis that Mani was influenced by Bardesanes.
The alphabet used is the one adapted by Mani himself from the Syriac estrangelo.
As regards Mani himself, it is safest to assume that he held both Judaism and Catholic Christianity to be entirely false religions.
The historical relation of Mani to Christianity is then as follows.
Indications of the influence of Marcionitism are found in the high estimation in which Mani held the apostle Paul, and in the fact that he explicitly rejects the Book of Acts.
Mani appears to have given recognition to a portion of the historical matter of the Gospels, and to have interpreted it in accordance with his own doctrine.
According to Kessler, Mani made use of the teaching of Buddha, at least as far as ethics was concerned.
It cannot be doubted that Mani, who undertook long journeys as far as India, knew of Buddhism.
The name Buddha (Buddas) which occurs in the legendary account of Mani, and perhaps in the latter's own writings, indicates further that he had occupied his attention with Buddhism when engaged in the work of founding his new religion.
A further source of strength lay in the simple yet firm social organization which was given by Mani himself to his new institution.
Manichaeism indeed, though it applies the title "redeemer" to Mani, has really no knowledge of a redeemer, but only of a physical and gnostic process of redemption; on the other hand, it possesses in Mani the supreme prophet of God.
Thus the system, not indeed of Mani the Persian, but of Manichaeism as modified by Christian influences, accompanied the Catholic Church until the 13th century.
The latter's work Mani, seine Lehre u.
375 seq.), who wrote in the 5th century against Marcion and Mani; and the Alexandrian patriarch Eutychius d.
An account of a disputation held between Mani and the bishop Archelaus of Cascar, in Mesopotamia; but they nevertheless contain much that is trustworthy, especially regarding the doctrine of Mani, and they also include Manichaean documents.
Religionssystem (1831; in this work Manichaean speculation is exhibited from a speculative standpoint); Fliigel, Mani (1862; a very careful investigation on the basis of the Fihrist); Kessler, Untersuchung zur Genesis des manich.
Religionssystems (1876); and the article "Mani, Manichaer," by the same writer in Herzog-Hauck'sR.E., xii.
193-228; Kessler, Mani (2 vols., Berlin, 1889, 1903); Ernest Rochat, Essai sur Mani et sa doctrine (Geneva, 1897); Recherches sur le manicheisme: I.
The Adoptianist bishop Archelaus, who opposed the entry of Mani into Armenia under Probus c. 277, was also perhaps a Syriac-speaking bishop of Pers-Armenia.
Paul's Christology therefore was of the Adoptionist type, which we find among the primitive Ebionite Christians of Judaea, in Hermas, Theodotus and Artemon of Rome, and in Archelaus the opponent of Mani, and in the other great doctors of the Syrian Church of the 4th and 5th centuries.