The mangrove swamps at the north-west end of the harbour have been drained and partially built over.
Great mangrove swamps supply unlimited fire-wood of the best quality.
Mangrove swamps, lagoons and marshes, with inland canals following the coast line for long distances, are characteristic features of a large extent of the Brazilian coast.
Vegetation of all sorts acts in a similar way, either in forming soil and assisting in breaking up rocks, in filling up shallow lakes, and even, like the mangrove, in reclaiming wide stretches of land from the sea.
There are undrained, swampy districts in Campeche, in the vicinity of the Terminos Lagoon, where malarial diseases are prevalent, and the same conditions prevail along the coast where mangrove swamps are found.
The sea-coast, bays and tide-water rivers are still fringed with mangrove, and on the sandy shores above Cape Frio grow large numbers of the exotic cocoa-nut palm.
They then become low and are fringed with mangrove swamps.
Coco-nut palm, banana, Jamaica dogwood, manchineel and mangrove; the Tropical belt in the lower valley of the Colorado has giant cactuses.
The flora resembles that of West Africa generally, the mangrove being common.
In the coast regions the typical tree is the mangrove, which flourishes wherever the soil is of a swamp character.
On both the east and the west coast the islands are thickly wooded, but whereas the former are surrounded by beautiful sands and beaches, the latter are fringed by mangrove-swamps.
The coasts of the Andamans are deeply indented, giving existence to a number of safe harbours and tidal creeks, which are often surrounded by mangrove swamps.
Dense scrub covers most of the land, but the inner (lagoon) shore is everywhere bounded by mangrove swamps.
The coast and tide-water rivers are fringed with mangrove, and the sandy plain reaching back to the margin of the inland plateau is generally bare of vegetation, though the carnahuba palm (Copernicia cerifera) and some species of low-growing trees are to be found in many places.
The shores are fringed with the mangrove; the prickly pear grows luxuriantly in the most barren districts; and wherever the ground is left to itself the sage bush springs up profusely.
There are some low, swampy islands, or mud flats, covered with mangrove thickets, in the lower Guayas river, but they are uninhabited and of no importance.
Turtle are common on the southern coast-line, sand and mangrove oysters are plentiful.
The principal exports from Maracaibo are coffee, hides and skins, cabinet and dye-woods, cocoa, and mangrove bark, to which may be added dividivi, sugar, copaiba, gamela and hemp straw for paper-making, and fruits.
After passing the mangrove limits, the ground to the east gradually rises till it becomes mountainous, even to the banks of the rivers, and finally culminates in the grand natural barrier dividing Burma from Siam.
On the low littoral zone the coast produced a rich tropical bush, in which the mangrove is very prominent.
Though a species of mangrove fringes much of this peninsula, its presence does not denote malaria, from which the islands are entirely free.
The mangrove is the characteristic tree of the swamps.
The Guayas or Guayaquil river is in part an estuary extending northward from the Gulf of Guayaquil, bordered by mangrove swamps and mud banks formed by the silt brought down from the neighbouring mountains.
Gutta, rubber, rattans, mangrove-bark, edible nuts, guano, edible birds'-nests, &c., are all valuable articles of export.
Characteristic of this region are the mangrove and Pandanus, and, a little inland, the banyan (Ficus), Pisonia and Hernandia.
Owing to increased competition, and in some degree to careless harvesting, there was a great fall in prices after 1900, and the Seychellois, though still producing vanilla in large quantities, paid greater attention to the products of the coconut palm - copra, soap, coco-nut oil and coco-nuts - to the development of the mangrove bark industry, the collection of guano, the cultivation of rubber trees, the preparation of banana flour, the growing of sugar canes, and the distillation of rum and essential oils.
The coast is low, intersected by creeks, and forms one huge mangrove swamp; on the rising ground inland are dense forests in which the cotton and mahogany trees are conspicuous.
And has a white spathe more than a foot in length; and on the western coast dense thickets of mangrove line the creeks and rivers.
We thus obtain the following four main divisions of the continent: - (1) The coast plains - often fringed seawards by mangrove swamps - never stretching far from the coast, except on the lower courses of streams. Recent alluvial flats are found chiefly in the delta of the more important rivers.
But the most striking of the coast-belt flora are the tropical forms - the palm, mangrove, wild banana (Strelitzia augusta), tree-ferns, tree euphorbia, candelabra spurge and Caput medusae.
Mangrove swamps surround the town and epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and other tropical diseases have been frequent; but the unhealthiness of the climate is mitigated to some extent by the high tides which cover the marshes, and the invigorating breezes which blow in from the sea.
For instance, Guayaquil has a hot humid climate and mangrove swamps line the shores of Guayas down to the gulf; at Santa Elena, about 60 m.