The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.
Iron, coal, copper and manganese are mined.
Near Tokat copper pyrites, with iron and manganese, kaolin and coal are found; but most of the copper worked here comes from the mines of Keban Maden and Arghana Maden, on the upper Euphrates and Tigris.
The colour of amethyst is usually attributed to the presence of manganese, but as it is capable of being much altered and even discharged by heat it has been referred by some authorities to an organic source.
He points out that the available oxygen in the oxides may react either as SO 2 + H 2 O ?-- O = H 2 SO 4 or as 2S0 2 -IH20 + 0 = H 2 S 2 0 6; and that in the case of ferric oxide 96% of the theoretical yield of dithionate is obtained, whilst manganese oxide only gives about 75%.
Recent experiments lead to the conclusion that iron, lead, manganese, lignite and sulphur exist in considerable abundance.
Manganese ore is mined for export, and bismuth is reported to have been discovered.
Pont--Mousson, Frouard, Lor Ardennes Charleville, Nouzon Sain-Bel (Rhne), manganese chiefly from Ariege and Sane-et.
In unlimited supply, important deposits of rich iron ores suitable for smelting purposes; and for the manufacture of steel of certain descriptions abundance of manganese, chrome and tungsten ores are available.
Manganese probably exists in all the states, deposits having been found in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia, the richest specimens being found in New South Wales.
Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
The manganese ores of the Bathurst district of New South Wales often contain a small percentage of cobalt - sufficient, indeed, to warrant further attempts to work them.
Gay-Lussac in 181q, is usually obtained in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then precipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide.
Much manganese sulphate is formed during the reaction, and H.
Soc., 1902, 81, p. I) showed that this can be almost entirely avoided by replacing the manganese oxide by hydrated ferric oxide, the reaction proceeding according to the equation: 2Fe(OH) 3 3S0 2 = FeS 2 0 6 FeS0 3 3H 2 0.
The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.
Considerable quantities of the following minerals have been found: barytes (heavy spar), magnetite (magnetic iron ore), and pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) in Humboldt county; roofing slate in Esmeralda county; cinnabar (ore containing quicksilver) in Washoe county; haematite in Elko and Churchill counties; cerussite and galena (lead ores) in Eureka county; and wolframite (a source of tungsten) at Round Mountain, White Pine county.
South of Batum), at Akhtala south of Tiflis, and at Kedabek in Elisavetpol; manganese to a considerably greater extent (over 400,000 tons annually) at Chiaturi in the Kvirila valley in Kutais.
The export that comes next in value is silk, and after it may be named wheat, barley, manganese ore, maize, wool, oilcake, carpets, rye, oats, liquorice and timber.
Now, however, the mottled soaps, blue and grey, are produced by working colouring matter, ultramarine for blue, and manganese dioxide for grey, into the soap in the frame, and mottling is very far from being a certificate of excellence of quality.
He found, however, that chromic acid, which he had represented as Cr06, neutralized a base containing 3 the 3 The following symbols were also used by Bergman: W, V, " + ", which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic, platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston.
Hjelm in 1783, and tungsten by Don Fausto d'Elhuyar; manganese was isolated by J.
If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.
If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.
To the filtrate from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and ammonium sulphide are added; the precipitate may contain nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides.
The next group precipitate may contain the white gelatinous aluminium hydroxide, the greenish chromium hydroxide, reddish ferric hydroxide, and possibly zinc and manganese hydroxides.
The next group may contain black nickel and cobalt sulphides, flesh-coloured manganese sulphide, and white zinc sulphide.
Lead and manganese are partially separated as peroxides, but the remaining metals are not deposited from acid solutions.
Lead chromate is sometimes used, and many other substances, such as platinum, manganese dioxide, &c., have been suggested.
1 7, p. 1 347), who has also suggested the use of manganese carbonate instead of magnesite, since the change of colour enables one to follow the decomposi 411=ThEIZ P; FIG.
Minerals, in which Oberhessen is much richer than the two other provinces, include iron, manganese, salt and some coal.
The mineral wealth of the Cyclades has hitherto been much neglected; iron ore is exported from Seriphos, manganese and sulphur from Melos, and volcanic cement (pozzolana) from Santorin.
Schefferite, or manganese pyroxene, is a brown mineral found in the manganese mines of Sweden.
Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.
Manganese occurs especially along the coast between Santiago and Manzanillo; the best ores run above 50%.
Iron and manganese have, on the contrary, been greatly developed in the same period.
Manganese is mined mainly near La Maya and El Cristo in Oriente.
Silver oxide is reduced to metallic silver at 170° C., lead dioxide to the monoxide and manganese dioxide to sesquioxide.
Bosnia is rich in minerals, including coal, iron, copper, chrome, manganese, cinnabar, zinc and mercury, besides marble and much excellent building stone.
The mineral wealth of the department is considerable, including coal as well as manganese and bituminous schist; plaster, building stone and hydraulic lime are also produced.
They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.
It oxidizes a manganese salt (free from chlorine) in the presence of nitric acid to a permanganate; this is a very delicate test for manganese.
Heusler that an alloy consisting of copper, aluminium and manganese (Heusler's alloy), possesses magnetic qualities comparable with those of iron.
Trans., 1885, 176, 455) employed his yoke method to test the magnetic properties of thirty-five samples of iron and steel, among which were steels containing substantial proportions of manganese, silicon, chromium and tungsten.
The most striking phenomenon which they bring into prominence is the effect of any considerable quantity of manganese in annihilating the magnetic property of iron.
A sample of Hadfield's manufacture, containing 1 2.36% of manganese, differed hardly at all from a non-magnetic substance, its permeability being only 1.27.
5 More than fifty different specimens were tested, most of which contained a known proportion of manganese, nickel, tungsten, aluminium, chromium, copper or silicon; in some samples two of the substances named were present.
The addition of 15.2% of manganese produced an enormous effect C.R., 1897, 124, 176 and 1515; 1897, 125, 235; 1898, 126, 738.2 Ibid., 1898, 126, 741.
Certain non-magnetizable alloys of nickel, chromium-nickel and chromium-manganese were rendered magnetizable by annealing.
Heusler 2 in 1903 that certain alloys of the non-magnetic metal manganese with other non-magnetic substances were strongly magnetizable, their susceptibility being in some cases equal to that of cast iron.
The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.
So far, the best results have been attained with aluminium, and the permeability was greatest when the percentages of manganese and aluminium were approximately proportional to the atomic weights of the two metals.
Thus in an alloy containing 26.5% of manganese and 14.6% of aluminium, the rest being copper, the induction for H= 20 was 4500, and for H=150, 5550.
When the proportion of aluminium to manganese was made a little greater or smaller, the permeability was diminished.
In all such magnetizable alloys the presence of manganese appears to be essential, and there can be little doubt that the magnetic quality of the mixtures is derived solely from this component.
Manganese, though belonging (with chromium) to the iron group of metals, is commonly classed as a paramagnetic, its susceptibility being very small in comparison with that of the recognized ferromagnetics; but it is remarkable that its atomic susceptibility in solutions of its salts is even greater than that of iron.
Now iron, nickel and cobalt all lose their magnetic quality when heated above certain critical temperatures which vary greatly for the three metals, and it was suspected by Faraday 3 as early as 1845 that manganese might really be a ferromagnetic metal having a critical temperature much below the ordinary temperature of the air.
Guillaume 6 explains the ferromagnetism of Heusler's alloy by supposing that the naturally low critical temperature of the manganese contained in it is greatly raised by the admixture of another appropriate metal, such as aluminium or tin; thus the alloy as a whole becomes magnetizable at the ordinary temperature.
Hadfield 7 have made very careful experiments on an alloy containing 22.42% of manganese, 11.65% of ' J.
4 No record can be found of experiments with manganese at the temperature of liquid air or hydrogen; probably, however, negative results would not be published.
On the other hand, its susceptibility is about fifty times less than that of Hadfield's 12% manganese steel, which is commonly spoken of as non-magnetizable.
Sitz., 1897, 106, II.a, p. 623, and 1898, 107, II.a, p. 5) the atomic susceptibilities k of the metals nickel, chromium, iron, cobalt and manganese in solutions of their salts are as follows: - Fe(i) is iron contained in FeC1 2 and Fe(2) iron contained in Fe2(NOs)s.