The mandible is composed of several bones as in reptiles.
They include the mandible of a mastodon and a portion of a vertebra of a large fish, both found in the Lower Madison Valley; the skull and other parts of a dog (Mesocyon drummondanus), found near Drummond, Granite county; the skull of a Poatrephes paludicola, found near New Chicago,.
The operculum of the normal zooecium has become the mandible, while the occlusor muscles have become enormous.
In most cases, however, the palp loses its exopodite and it often disappears altogether, while the coxal segment forms the body of the mandible, with a masticatory edge variously armed with teeth and spines.
This buccal sac is provided with a dorsal mandible and a ventral radula.
The facial portion of the skull is very short; a long process of the maxillary bone descends from the anterior part of the zygomatic arch; and the ascending ramus of the mandible is remarkably high.
The beak is large, strong and sharp-edged, the upper mandible terminating in a large hook; the wings are narrow and very long; the feet have no hind toe, and the three anterior toes are completely webbed.
With regard to the lower teeth the difficulties are greater, owing to the absence of any suture corresponding to that which defines the incisors above; but since the number of the teeth is the same, since the corresponding teeth are preceded by milk-teeth, and since in the large majority of cases it is the fourth tooth of the series which is modified in the same way as the canine (or fourth tooth) of the upper jaw, it is reasonable to adopt the same divisions as with the upper series, and to call the first three, which are implanted in the part of the mandible opposite to the premaxilla, the incisors, the next the canine, the next four the premolars, and the last three the molars.
The isolated gnathobase often seen as " mandible " and the genital operculum).
Hinds believe that the paired piercers are the inner lobes of the maxillae, and the unpaired piercer the left mandible, the right mandible being absent.
The processes of the mandible (iap, pap) are characteristic of this type, and of the anseres.
St.) is directed downwards and tapers out into a thin, partly cartilaginous, strand, which originally extended to the inner corner of the articular portion of the mandible, but on its long way comes to grief, being squeezed in between the pterygoid and quadrate.
The siphonium described in connexion with the mandible), but filling also such curious organs as the frontal excrescence of Chasmorhynchus, the Brazilian bell-bird, the throat-bag of the adjutant stork, and the gular pouch of the bustard.
- Mandible of Aphanapteryx, side view.
The root-feeding larvae of the cockchafer and allied members of the Scarabaeidae have a ridged area on the mandible, which is scraped by teeth on the maxillae, apparently forming a stridulating organ.
Ia, frons; b, clypeus (the pointed labrum beneath it); II, mandible; III, first maxilla; (a, base; b, sheath; c, piercer), III', inner view of sheath; IV, second maxillae forming rostrum (b, mentum; c, ligula).
Or " mandible" can be opened and closed.
In the vibraculum the part representing the zooecium is relatively smaller, and the mandible has become the "seta," an elongated chitinous lash which projects far beyond the zooecial portion of the structure.
The upper surface of the lateral edges of the mandible has also a number of parallel fine transverse ridge, like those on the bill of a duck.
Maxillary vertical, loosely attached, toothed; mandible toothless; a single pair of pelvis bones: Typhlopidae.
Maxillary horizontal; pterygoid not reaching quadrate or mandible: Amblycephalidae.
Maxillary vertically erectile, perpendicularly to ectoptery goid, and reaching quadrate or mandible: Viperidae.
- Maxillaries horizontal and forming the greater portion of the upper jaw, which is toothed like the lower jaw; coronoid of mandible absent.
A, mandible; b, c, palp and lacinia of first maxilla; d, e, g, h, mentum, palp, fused laciniae (ligula or "tongue") and galea of 2nd maxillae.
A tuft of black, bristly feathers projects beardlike from the base of the mandible, and gives the bird one of its commonest epithets in many languages.
The articulation of the mandible to the quadrate-bone is such as to allow of a very considerable amount of lateral play, and, by a particular arrangement of the muscles which move the former, it comes to pass that so soon as the bird opens its mouth the point of the mandible is brought immediately opposite to that of the maxilla (which itself is movable vertically), instead of crossing or overlapping it - the usual position when the mouth is closed.
Inserted between the scales or into the pome, but on opening the mouth still more widely, the lateral motion of the mandible is once more brought to bear with great force to wrench aside the portion of the fruit attacked, and then the action of the tongue completes the operation, which is so rapidly performed as to defy scrutiny, except on very close inspection.
The glenoid surface for the articulation of the mandible is greatly extended transversely, concave from side to side, convex from before backwards in front, and hollow behind, and is bounded posteriorly at its inner part by a prominent post-glenoid process.
Its upper extremity embraces the lower surface of the cartilaginous ear-conch; its lower end reaches the level of the inferior margin of the mandible, along the posterior margin of which it is placed.
The solid palpless mandible such as we now see in some Arthropoda is, necessarily, a late specialization.
The endopodite may be retained as a small segmented palp at the side of the gnathobase or disappear (mandible of Crustacea, Chilopoda and Hexapods).
Mn, Mandible, and Mxl.