Spencer, "Mammalia of the Horn Expedition" (1896); "Wynyardia, a Fossil Marsupial from Tasmania," Proc. Zool.
Osborn, "Mesozoic Mammalia," Journ.
Goodrich, "On the Fossil Mammalia from the Stonesfield Slate," Quart.
The parasitic Nematodes include by far the greatest number of the known genera; they are found in nearly all the orders of the animal kingdom, but more especially among the Vertebrata, and of these the Mammalia are infested by a greater variety than any of the other groups.
Oxyuris, though chiefly parasitic in the Mammalia, occurs also in reptiles, Amphibia and one or two insects.
The adult worm, which is of extremely minute size, the male being only Fi l sth and the female s of an inch in length inhabits the alimentary canal of man and many other carnivorous mammalia; the young bore their way into the tissues and become encysted in the muscles - within the muscle-bundles according to Leuckart, but in the connective tissue between them according to Chatin and others.
==Fauna== Animal life is generally deficient throughout the Andamans, especially as regards mammalia, of which there are only nineteen separate species in all, twelve of these being peculiar to the islands.
Here they were long rolled together with the bones of large mammalia, fishes, and with the shells of molluscous creatures that lived in shells.
It may here be remembered that of the mammalia man and monkeys alone are capable of convergence, and have a circumscribed macular area.
Although the scala tympani is so rudimentary, not reaching a higher level than in most of the reptiles, and remaining far below the mammalia, birds do not only hear extremely well, but they distinguish between and " understand " pitch, notes and melodies.
The only indigenous land mammalia are a small rat and a few curious species of bats.
In 1806 Fischer de Waldheim, in his Tableaux syn- optiques de zoognosie (p. 181), quoting Nieremberg, extended his figure of speech, and, while justly deprecating the notion that the series of forms belonging to any particular group of creatures - the Mammalia was that whence he took his instance - could be placed in a straight line, imagined the various genera to be arrayed in a series of contiguous circles around Man as a centre.
1 4 This peculiarity had led some zoologists to consider the struthious birds more nearly allied to the Mammalia than any others.
In the mature stage Pentastomida live in the respiratory passages of mammalia, principally in the nasal cavities.
Huxley adopted Latreille's view of the distinctness of the Amphibia, as a class of the Vertebrata, co-ordinate with the Mammalia, A y es, Reptilia and Pisces; and the same arrangement was accepted by Gegenbaur and Haeckel.
Another special distinction of Cuvier is his remarkable work in comparing extinct with recent organisms, his descriptions of the fossil Mammalia of the Paris basin, and his general application of the knowledge of recent animals to the reconstruction of extinct ones, as indicated by fragments only of their skeletons.
Classes: Mammalia, Ayes, Reptilia, Pisces.
The true lice (or Anoplura) are found on the bodies of many Mammalia, and occasion by their presence intolerable irritation.
The only wild mammalia in the island are the hedgehogs, two species of weasel, the Norway rat, and the domestic mouse.
It is that part of the digestive apparatus which is analogous to the single stomach of other Mammalia, as the food there undergoes the process of chymification, after being macerated and ground down in the three first stomachs.
Scott, Mammalia of the Santa Cruz Beds, Edentata, Rep., Princeton Exped.
Valley gravels .border the Thames, and Pleistocene mammalia have been found in fissures in the Hythe beds at Ightham, where ancient stone implements are common.
Fine examples of the spirit of the period as applied to extinct Mammalia are Gaudry's Animaux fossiles et geologie de l'Attique (1862) on the Upper Miocene fauna of Pikermi near Athens, and the remarkable memoirs of Vladimir Onufrievich Kowalevsky (1842-1883), published in 1873.
This branch of the science has reached the highest development in its application to the history of the extinct mammalia of the Tertiary through the original work o Cope and Henri Filhol, which has been brought to a much higher degree of exactness recently through the studies of H.
The theoretical existence of primitive or stem forms was clearly perceived by Darwin, but the steps by which the stem form might be restored were first clearly enunciated by Huxley in 1880 (" On the Application of Evolution to the Arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia," Scient.
Nature, limited in her resources for adaptation, fashioned so many of these animals in like form that we have learned only recently to distinguish similarities cf analogous habit from the similitudes of real kinship. From whatever order of Mammalia or Reptilia an animal may be derived, prolonged aquatic adaptation will model its outer, and finally its inner, structure according to certain advantageous designs.
In a full analysis of this problem of internal and external causes in relation to the Tertiary Mammalia, H.
Osborn (" Causes of Extinction of the Mammalia," Amer.
Osborn, " The Rise of the Mammalia in North America " (Proc. Amer.
1904), " The Causes of Extinction of Mammalia " (Amer.
Among mammalia there are no certain cases of mimicry known.
Cope, "The Origin of the Mammalia," Proc. Amer.
Gadow, "The Origin of the Mammalia," Z.
ECHIDNA, or Porcupine Ant-Eater (Echidna aculeata), one of the few species of Monotremata, the lowest subclass of Mammalia, forming the family Echidnidae.
His chief distinctions, however, were won in the realms of anthropology by his researches into the lives of the cave-dwellers of prehistoric times, labours which have borne fruit in his books Cave-hunting (1874); Early Man in Britain (1880);(1880); British Pleistocene Mammalia (1866-1887).
The marine mammalia are numerous.
Syevertsov, "Vertical and Horizontal Distribution of Mammalia in Turkestan," in Izvestia Lub.
Blanford, The Fauna of British India - Mammalia (1888-1891); D.
MAMMALIA (from Lat.
Not so, however, when the extinct forms of vertebrate life are taken into consideration, for there is a group of reptiles from the early part of the Secondary, or Mesozoic period, some of whose members must have been so intimately related to mammals that, were the whole group fully known, it would clearly be impossible to draw a distinction between Mammalia on the one hand and Reptilia on the other.
While the value of McEnery's discoveries was in dispute the exploration of the cave of Brixham near Torquay in 1858 proved that man was coeval with the extinct mammalia, and in the following year additional proof was offered by the implements that were found in Wookey Hole, Somerset.
Scott, "Mammalia of the Santa Cruz Beds - Edentata," Rep. Princeton Exped.