On leaving Egypt he travelled by land to the Persian Gulf, disguised as a Mameluke, visiting Damascus, and entering the great mosque undetected.
Muir, The Mameluke or Stave Dynasty of Egypt (London, 1896); for the Turkish period, G.
I Turanshah, deposed 1250, and succeeded by the Mameluke Aibek.
The revolution in Egypt in 1250 separated Damascus from Cairo more trenchantly than they had ever been separated since 1171: while a Mameluke ruled in Cairo, Malik-al-Nasir of Aleppo was elected as sultan by the emirs of Damascus.
The building of Cairo in 969, and, above all, the discovery of the route to the East by the Cape of Good Hope in 1498, nearly ruined its commerce; the canal, which supplied it with Nile water, became blocked; and although it remained a principal Egyptian port, at which most European visitors in the Mameluke and Ottoman periods landed, we hear little of it until about the beginning of the 19th century.
Much favoured by the earlier viceroys of Mehemet Ali's house, and removed from the Mameluke troubles, Alexandria was the real capital of Egypt till Said Pasha died there in 1863 and Ismail came into power.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
In the south he was threatened by the dangerous rivalry of Kait Bey, the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, who had extended his power northwards as far as Tarsus and Adana.
MAMELUKE (anglicized through the French, from the Arabic mamluk, a slave), the name given to a series of Egyptian sultans, originating (1250) in the usurpation of supreme power by the bodyguard of Turkish slaves first formed in Egypt under the successors of Saladin.
But Izz ed-din, intriguing with the Mameluke sultans of Egypt to expel his brother and gain his independence, was defeated by a Mongol army and obliged to flee to the imperial court.
The minister raised his infant son, Ghiyass ed-din Kaikhosrau III., to the throne, and governed the country for ten years longer, till he was entangled in a conspiracy of several amirs, who proposed to expel the Mongols with the aid of the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, Bibars (Beibars or Beybars).
Southwest of the Mameluke tombs is the much-venerated tomb-mosque of the Imam esh-Shafih or Shari, founder of one of the four orthodox sects of Islam.
The edifices raised by the Moorish kings of Spain and the Moslem rulers of India may have been more splendid in their materials, and more elaborate in their details; the houses of the great men of Damascus may be more costly than were those of the Mameluke beys; but for purity of taste and elegance of design both are far excelled by many of the mosques and houses of Cairo.
Under the prosperous rule of the Mameluke sultans this great tract was filled with habitations; a large suburb to the north, the Hoseynia, was added; and the town of Bulak was founded.
The Ayyubites were followed by the Mameluke dynasties, usually classified as Bal~ri from 1252-1382, and Burji from 1382-1517; these sovereigns were nominally under the suzerainty of Abbasid caliphs, who were in reality instruments of the Mameluke sultans, and resided at Cairo.
The land was during this period threatened at once by the Ftimites from the west; the Nubians from the south, and the Carmathians from the east; when the second Ikshidi died in 965, Kfflr at first made a pretence of appointing his young son Abmad as his successor, but deemed it safer to assume the viceroyalty himself, setting an example which in Mameluke times was often followed.
(6) Period of Ba,~zri MamelukesThe dynasties that succeeded the Ayytibites till the conquest of Egypt by the Ottomans bore the title Dynasties of the Turks, but are more often called Mameluke dynasties, because the sultans were drawn from the enfranchised slaves who constituted the court, and officered the army.
The sultans son Malik al-Said ~ ascended the throne; but within little more than two years he was compelled to abdicate in favor of his father-inlaw Kalan, a Mameluke who had risen high in the former sovereigns service.
~Iusm al-din fell a Victim to the jealousy of the older amirs whom he had incensed by bestowing arbitrary power on his own Mameluke Mengutimur, and was murdered on the 16th of January 1299.
The 7th Ilkhan, Ghazan Mahmud, took advantage of the disorder in the Mameluke empire to invade Syria in the latter half of 1299, when his forces inflicted a severe defeat on those of the new sultan, and seized several cities, including the capital Damascus, of which, however, they were unable to storm the citadel; in 1300, when a fresh army was collected in Egypt, the Mongols evacuated Damascus and made no attempt to secure their other conquests.
The son, Abu Bakr, to whom he had left the throne, was able to maintain himself only a few months on it, being compelled to abdicate on the 4th of August 1341 in favor of his infant brother Kuchuk; the revolution was brought about by Kaustin, a powerful Mameluke of the preceding monarch.
Unlike the other Mameluke sovereigns, who were Turks or Circassians, this man had originally been a Greek slave.
The Mameluke amirs were to be retained in office as heads of twelve sanjaks into, which Egypt was divided; and under the next sultan, Suleiman I., two chambers were created, called respectively the Greater and the Lesser Divan, in which both the army and the ecclesiastical authorities were represented, to aid the pasha by their deliberations.
In 1707 the Sheik al-Bamad, Qgsim Iywa.z, is found at the head of one of two Mameluke factions, the Qasimites and the Fiqarites, between whom the seeds of enmity were sown by the pasha of the time, with the result that a fight took place between the factions outside Cairo, lasting eighty days.
Of many of the Mameluke sultans there are special chronicles preserved in various European and Oriental libraries.
In the subject of law Egypt boasts that the Imm ShfiI, founder of one of the schools, resided at FostSt from 195 till his death in 204; his system, though displaced for a time by that invented by the Fatimites, and since the Turkish conquest by the Uanifite system, has always been popular in Egypt: in Ayyubite times it was dominant, whereas in Mameluke times all four systems were officially recognized.
De Slane (London, 1842-1871); for the Mameluke period, Well, Geschichte der Chalifen, vols.
Mehemet Ali, then in command of an Albanian regiment, became the head of the former, hut his party was the weaker, and he therefore entered into an alliance with the Mameluke leaders Ibrahim Bey and Osmn Bey al-BardisI.
This reverse in a measure united the two great Mameluke parties, though their chiefs remained at enmity.
Eighty-three heads (many of them those of Frenchmen and Albanians) were stuffed and sent to Constantinople, with a boast that the Mameluke chiefs were utterly destroyed.
Early in the year I 811, the preparations for an expedition against the Wahhbis in Arabia being complete, all the Mameluke beys then in Cairo were invited to the ceremony of investing Mehemet Alis favorite son, TUslin, with a pelisse and the command of the army.
(1517) the Ottoman Selim, who destroyed the Mameluke power, constrained the 'Abbasid Motawakkil III., who lived in Cairo, to make over to him his nominal caliphate.
The Khwarizmians and Egyptians afterwards quarrelled, and the former were compelled to retire, leaving Palestine under the rule of the Mameluke 2 sultans of Egypt.
In vain, three years later, did Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad, a scion of the race of the Abbasids, who had taken refuge in Egypt with Bibars the Mameluke sultan, and who had been proclaimed caliph under the title al-Mostansir billah (" he who seeks help from God"), make an effort to restore a dynasty which was now for ever extinct.
By the Mameluke sultan of Egypt.
The Ilkhans, who had failed in their attempt to wrest Syria from the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, had subsequently endeavoured tO effect their object by inducing the European Powers to make a new crusade.
It was even suggested that the titular Abbasid caliphs (who retained an empty title in Cairo under Mameluke protection, should be reinstated at Bagdad, but this proposal was not carried into effect.
The prince, under whom a definite peace was made with Malik al-Nasir, the Mameluke ruler of Egypt, had great trouble with powerful viziers and generals which he accentuated by his passion for Bagdad-Khatun, wife of the amir Uosain and daughter of the amir Chupan.
By 1393 he had conquered northern Persia and Armenia, Bagdad, Mesopotamia, Diarbekr and Van, and Ahmad fled to Egypt, where he was received by Barkuk (Barquq) the Mameluke sultan.
To prevent further attacks from the sea the Mameluke sultan Bibars blocked up the Phatnitic mouth of the Nile (about 1260), razed old Damietta to the ground, and transferred the inhabitants to the site of the modern town.
In 1298 he entered the service of the Mameluke Sultan Malik al-Nasir and after twelve years was invested by him with the governorship of Hamah.
The purpose of this was to conclude an anti-Moslem alliance, especially against the Mameluke power, with the chief states of Christendom.
The frequent coarseness of tone is proper to the condition of Egyptian society under the Mameluke sultans, and would not have been tolerated in Bagdad in the age to which so many of the tales refer.
The Arabian Ayyubite princes fortified the town, as did the Egyptian Mameluke sultans.
Of its later history we need only mention the Mongolian capture in 1260; its Egyptian recapture by the Mameluke Kotuz; the ferocious raid of Timur (Tamerlane) in 1399; and the conquest by the Turkish sultan Selim, whereby it became a city of the Ottoman empire (1516).
Four days before, sentinels of the Preobrazhensk regiment had stood in front of the house to which Balashev was conducted, and now two French grenadiers stood there in blue uniforms unfastened in front and with shaggy caps on their heads, and an escort of hussars and uhlans and a brilliant suite of aides-de-camp, pages, and generals, who were waiting for Napoleon to come out, were standing at the porch, round his saddle horse and his Mameluke, Rustan.