Pumilio will have to rank as a race of the Maltese species.
There are several fine public buildings, as the governor's palace, the new opera-house, the public library and museum of Maltese antiquities, and the auberges or lodges of the Knights of Malta (especially the Auberge de Castile) which are now used for military offices, club-rooms, and other purposes.
High and low, all speak among themselves the Phoenician Maltese, altogether different from the Italian language; Italian was only spoken by 13.24% in 1901.
If, on the other hand, the dwarf Congo elephant be regarded as a species, then the Maltese and Cyprian elephants may have to be classed as races of Elephas pumilio; or, rather, E.
The governor's palace was formerly that of the grand master of the Maltese Order, and it also contains relics of the knights, tapestries, armour, &c. Extensive bagnios under the rock, formerly occupied by the slaves of the knights, are now used for stores.
There he presented himself to the grand master of the Maltese order as Count Cagliostro, and curried favour with him as a fellow alchemist, for the grand master's tastes lay in the same direction.
French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized Frenchmen Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews.
The mouth may be a simple, circular pore at the extremity of the manubrium, or by folding of the edges it may become square or shaped like a Maltese cross, with four corners and four lips.
(f) Ladies' toy dogs - King Charles spaniel, the Blenheim spaniel, the Italian greyhound, the pug dog, the Maltese dog, toy terriers, toy poodles, the lion dog, Chinese and Japanese spaniels.
Bulldog, bulldog (miniature), mastiff, Great Dane, Newfoundland (black, white and black, or other than black), St Bernard (rough and smooth), Old English sheepdog, collie (rough and smooth), Dalmatian, poodle, bull terrier, white English terrier, black and tan terrier, toy spaniel (King Charles or black and tan, Blenheim, ruby or red and tricolour), Japanese, Pekingese, Yorkshire terrier, Maltese, Italian greyhound, chowchow, black and tan terrier (miniature), Pomeranian, pug (fawn and black), Schipperke, Griffon Bruxellois, foreign dogs (bouledogues frangais, elk-hounds, Eskimos, Lhasa terriers, Samoyedes and any other varieties not mentioned under this heading).
On the 4th of May 1898 a sub-committee of the Kennel Club decided that the following breeds should be classified as "toy dogs": - Black and tan terriers (under 7 lb), bull terriers (under 8 lb), griffons, Italian greyhounds, Japanese, Maltese, Pekingese, poodles (under 15 in.), pugs, toy spaniels, Yorkshire terriers and Pomeranians.
In his reign the Cossacks were driven from Azov and the expedition against Crete was begun, the immediate cause being the plunder of a Turkish vessel by Maltese corsairs who took their capture to Crete.
During the Roman period the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the bastard population termed by ancient authors Libyo-Phoenicians, like the modern Maltese, invariably formed the predominant population of the towns on the littoral, and retained the Punic language until the 6th century of the Christian era.
Of his many works, the earliest, published in 1810, entitled Versuch 'fiber die maltesische Sprache, was a successful refutation of the widely current opinion that the modern Maltese was of Punic origin.
' Of recent introduction for the most part, consisting (census of 1906) of 81,156 Italians, 34,610 French, 10,330 Maltese, about moo Greeks and the remainder British, German, Austrian, &c. The French army of occupation (20,360 men) is not included in these figures.
The fisheries are in the hands of Italians, Maltese and Greeks.
Since the Turkish conquest (1459) the history of Corinth has been uneventful, save for a raid by the Maltese in 1611 and a Venetian occupation from 1687 to 1715.
MALTA, the largest of the Maltese Islands, situated between Europe and Africa, in the central channel which connects the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean Sea.
The Maltese Islands consist largely of Tertiary Limestone, with somewhat variable beds of Crystalline Sandstone, Greensand and Marl or Blue Clay.
The Maltese dog was never wild and has ceased to exist as a breed.
The fallacy that Maltese is a dialect of Arabia has been luminously disproved by A.
In 1901, in addition to visitors and the naval and military forces, 18,922 Maltese spoke English, and the number has been rapidly increasing.
The Maltese are strict adherents to the Roman Catholic religion, and enthusiastic observers of festivals, fasts and ceremonials.
About 5000 women and children are engaged in producing Maltese lace.
Pottery is manufactured on a small scale; ornamental carvings are made in Maltese stone and exported to a limited extent.
The Maltese have to pay for food imports by imperial wages, earned' in connexion with naval and military services, by commercial services to passing steamers and visitors, by earnings which emigrants send home from northern Africa and elsewhere, and by interest on investments of Maltese capital abroad.
The partial use of English (with illogical limitations to the detriment of the Maltese-born British subjects who speak English) was introduced by local ordinances and orders in council at the end of the 19th century.
The Maltese, of whom 86% cannot understand Italian, are still liable to be tried, even for their lives, in Italian, to them a foreign language.
At first an attempt was made to make Maltese a literary language by adapting the Arabic characters to record it in print.
The obstruction which he encountered alarmed him, and he compromised by adopting a mixed system of both English and Italian, pan: passu, as the basis of Maltese education; he resigned after a brief effort.
Mr Savona's attempt to teach the Maltese children simultaneously two foreign languages (of which they were quite ignorant, and their teachers only partially conversant) without first teaching how to read and write the native Maltese systematically was continued for some years under an eminent archaeologist, Dr A.
Strickland established a new system of education based on the principle of beginning from the bottom, by teaching to read and write in Maltese as the medium for assimilating, at a further stage, either English or Italian, one at a time, and aiming at imparting general knowledge in colloquial English.
A series of school books, in the Maltese language printed in Roman characters, with translations in English interlined in different type, was produced at the government printing office and sold at cost price.
That after a number of years English should be the language of the courts as well as of education, and to protect those belonging to the old order of knowledge from the competition of young Maltese better educated than themselves, whose rapid rise everywhere would be assured by knowing English thoroughly.
An order in council was enacted in 1899 providing that no Maltese (except students of theology) should thenceforth suffer any detriment through inability to pass examinations in Italian, in either the schools or university, but the fraction of the Maltese who claim to speak Italian (13.24%) still command sufficient influence to hamper the full enjoyment of this emancipation by the majority.
The Romans did not treat the Maltese as conquered enemies, and at once gave them the privileges of a municipium; Cicero (in Verrem) refers to the Maltese as " Socii."
V., c. 4) speaks of the importance and ornamentation of Maltese dwellings, and to this day remains of palaces and dwellings of the Roman period indicate a high degree of civilization and wealth.
Among his Maltese friends were Aulus Licinius and Diodorus.
The Maltese catacombs are strikingly similar to those of Rome, and were likewise used as places of burial and of refuge in time of persecution.
54) the stay of the apostle resulted in the conversion of the Maltese to Christianity.
870, the Maltese joined forces against the Byzantine garrison, and 3000 Greeks were massacred.
Many Arab coins, some Kufic inscriptions and several burial-places were left by the Arabs; but they did not establish their religion or leave a permanent impression on the Phoenician inhabitants, or deprive the Maltese language of the characteristics which differentiate it from Arabic. There is no historical evidence that the domination of the Goths and Vandals in the Mediterranean ever extended to Malta: there are fine Gothic arches in two old palaces at Notabile, but these were built after the Norman conquest of Malta.
In 1090 Count Roger the Norman (son of Tancred de Hauteville), then master of Sicily, came to Malta with a small retinue; the Arab garrison was unable to offer effective opposition, and the Maltese were willing and able to welcome the Normans as deliverers and to hold the island after the immediate withdrawal of Count Roger.
He had led 300 Maltese at the capture of two forts in Tripoli by the Genoese.
The Maltese joined the Spaniards in a disastrous raid against Gerbi on the African coast in 1432.
This compact was twice broken, and in 1428 the Maltese paid King Alfonso 30,000 florins for a confirmation of privileges, with a proviso that entitled them to resist by force of arms any intermediate lord that his successors might attempt to impose.
The Maltese, at first, challenged the grant as a breach of the charter of King Alfonso, but eventually welcomed the knights.
The knights lived apart from the Maltese, and derived their principal revenues from estates of the Order in the richest countries of Europe.
The Order of St John and the Christian Maltese now realized that an attempt to exterminate them would soon be made by Soliman II., and careful preparations were made to meet the attack.
The knights and their Maltese troops fought for death or victory, without asking or giving quarter.
An attempt to seize church valuables at Notabile was forcibly resisted by the Maltese, and general discontent broke out into open rebellion on the 2nd of September 1798.
Canon Caruana and other leaders of the Maltese aspired to obtain for Malta the freedom of the Roman Catholic religion guaranteed by England in Canada and other dependencies, and promoted a petition in order that Malta should come under the strong power of England rather than revert to the kingdom of the two Sicilies.
The Treaty of Amiens (1802) provided for the restoration of the island to the Order of St John; against this the Maltese strongly protested, realizing that it would be followed by the re-establishment of French influence.
The Treaty of Paris (1814), with the acclamations of the Maltese, confirmed Great Britain in the aggregation of Malta to the empire.
When the pledge, given by the Treaty of Amiens, to restore the Order of St John with a national Maltese "langue," could not be fulfilled, political leaders began demanding instead the re-establishment of the " Consiglio Popolare " of Norman times (without reflecting that it never had legislative power); but by degrees popular aspirations developed in favour of a free constitution on English lines.
These foreigners introduced new life into politics and the press, and made it fashionable for educated Maltese to delude themselves with the idea that the Maltese were Italians, because a few of them could speak the language of the peninsula.
Fierce opposition ensued, and the pari passu compromise was adopted to which reference is made in the section on Education above; Mr Savona was an able organizer, and began the real emancipation of the Maltese masses from educational ignorance; but he succumbed to agitation before accomplishing substantial results.
A regulation excluding Maltese from the navy (because of their speaking on board a language that their officers did not understand) provoked from Trinity College, Cambridge, the Strickland correspondence in The Times on the constitutional rights of the Maltese, and a leading article induced the Colonial Office to try an experiment known as the Strickland-Mizzi Constitution of 1887.
Strickland, who had been elected while an undergraduate on the cry of equality of rights for Maltese and English, and Mizzi, the leader of the anti-English agitation, were, as soon as elected, given seats in the executive council to co-operate with the government; but their aims were irreconcilable.
Meanwhile the Royal Malta Militia was established as a link between the Maltese and the garrison.
The Maltese relied on the Roman Canon Law, the English on the common law of England, Scots or Irish had nothing but the English law to fall back upon.