Its industries include brewing and distilling and the manufacture of malt, sugar and starch.
The republic has 676 breweries and 140 malt-houses.
Barley is now chiefly cultivated for malting to prepare spirits and beer, but it is also largely employed in domestic cookery.
The total value of these products for 1905 was $29,909,248, of which $22,134,580 was the value of malt liquors and $3,774,668 was the value of malt.
Other important manufactures, with their product values in 1900 and in 1905, are iron and steel ($5,004,572 in 1900; $6,167,542 in 1905); railway cars ($4,248,029 in 1900; $5,739,071 in 1905); packed meats ($5, 1 77, 16 7 in 1900; $5, 6 93,73 1 in 1905); foundry and machine shop products ($4,434,610 in 1900; $4, 6 99,559 in 1905); planing mill products, including sash, doors and blinds ($1,891,517 in 1900; $4,593, 2 5 1 in 1905-an increase already remarked); carriages and wagons ($2,849,713 in 1900; $4,059,438 in 1905); tanned and curried leather ($3,757,016 in 1900; $3,952,277 in 1905); and malt liquors ($3,186,627 in 1900; $3,673,678 in 1905).
Malt, tinware, flour and grist-mill products, boilers, stoves and ranges, optical supplies, wall-paper, cereals, canned goods, cutlery, tin cans and wagons are manufactured, and there are also extensive nurseries.
Among the borough's manufactures are stoves and furnaces, malt liquors and silk.
Fremont is situated in a good agricultural region; oil and natural gas abound in the vicinity; and the city has various manufactures, including boilers, electro-carbons, cutlery, bricks, agricultural implements, stoves and ranges, safety razors, carriage irons, sash, doors, blinds, furniture, beet sugar, canned vegetables, malt extract, garters and suspenders.
Schiedam is famous as the seat of a great gin manufacture, which, carried on in more than three hundred distilleries, gives employment besides to malt-factories, cooperages and cork-cutting establishments, and supplies grain refuse enough to feed about 30,000 pigs, as well as sufficient yeast to form an important article of export.
Other important manufactures are: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $6,251,705 in 1905; malt liquors, $4,471,777; and foundry and machine shop products, $3,862,279.
Flour and grist mill products rose during that period from $937,462 to $2,003,136; and malt liquors increased in value from $1,267,331 to $1,731,691.
In the manufacture of malt liquors and malt Milwaukee stands first among the cities of the United States and of the world.
In 1905 Milwaukee manufactured 77.1% of the malt liquors manufactured in the state and 7.4% of the entire product of the United States.
The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city.
In the same year Newark manufactured more than one-half (by value) of all the jewelry, leather and malt liquors produced in the state.
Sugar, malt, hops, beer, mineral waters, glass, porcelain, leather, gloves, furniture and toys are the principal articles of export to Great Britain.
Among the more important manufactures of the city in 1905 were the following, with the value of the product for that year: clothing ($16,972,484), slaughtering and meatpacking products ($13,446,202), foundry and machine-shop products ($11,528,768), boots and shoes ($10,596,928), distilled liquors ($9,609,826), malt liquors ($7,702,693), and carriages and wagons ($6,323,803).
The products of greatest value in 5905 were: custom-made men's clothing; fruits and vegetables and oysters, canned and preserved; iron and steel; foundry and machine-shop products, including stoves and furnaces; flour and grist mill products; tinware, coppersmithing and sheet iron working; fertilizers; slaughtering and meat-packing; cars and repairs by steam railways; shirts; cotton goods; malt liquors; and cigars and cigarettes.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
Weaving and brewing and the manufacture of machinery, chicory, cigars, malt, boots, furniture and soap are the chief industries.
Other industries are the manufacture of cellulose, artificial manure, flour and malt; and there are saw-mills, iron foundries and breweries in the town.
Saalfeld is situated in one of the busiest parts of Meiningen and has a number of prosperous industries, including the manufacture of machinery, bricks, colours, malt, cigars, hosiery and vinegar.
In the malt or mash-tun.
Thomas Fuller writing in 1662 mentions lead, malt and ale as the chief products of the county, and the Buxton waters were already famous in his day.
The town manufactures combs and horn goods, brass and iron wares, leather, malt, bricks and ropes.
Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
In 1905 the census reports did not include manufactures outside the actual city limits; the total value of the factory product of the city proper in 1905 was $11,573,720; besides slaughtering and packing the other manufactures in 1905 included men's factory-made clothing (valued at $1,556,655) flour and grist-mill products (valued at $683,464), saddlery and harness (valued at $524,918), confectionery ($437,096), malt liquors ($407,054), boots and shoes ($350,384) and farm implements.
There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
The barley-corn has been personified as representing the malt liquor made from barley, as in Burns's song "John Barleycorn."
Other manufactures with a product value in 1905 of between $4,000,000 and $1,000,000 were: bags (not paper); foundry and machine-shop products; planing-mill products; railway cars, construction and repairs; malt liquors; men's clothing; cooperage; food preparations; roasted and ground coffee and spice; fertilizers; cigars and cigarettes; cotton goods; and manufactured ice.
Other manufactures of importance are butter, cheese and condensed milk, packed meats and other slaughter-house products, steam railway cars, foundry and machine-shop products, linseed oil, malt liquors, planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds, boots and shoes, and agricultural implements.
Maltose, malt-sugar, maltobiose, C12H22011, is formed, together with dextrine, by the action of malt diastase on starch, and as an intermediate product in the decomposition of starch by sulphuric acid, and of glycogen by ferments.
Other important manufactures are iron and steel, slaughtering and meat-packing products, boots and shoes, cigars, furniture, men's clothing, hosiery and knit goods, jute and jute goods, linen-thread, malt liquors, brick, cement, barbed wire, wire nails and planing-mill products.
There are manufactures of machinery and agricultural implements, and trade in the products of the district, such as cider and malt, and several fairs are held annually.
Other important products were: men's clothing ($2,943,214); foundry and machineshop products ($1,607,258); steam fittings and heating apparatus ($1,010,755); malt liquors ($933,278); and lumber products ($869,000).
Its most distinctive manufactures are paper and wood pulp; more valuable are foundry and machine shop products; other manufactures are safes, malt liquors, flour, woollens, Corliss engines, carriages and wagons and agricultural implements.
In addition to cash registers, the city's manufactured products include agricultural implements, clay-working machinery, cotton-seed and linseed oil machinery, filters, turbines, railway cars (the large Barney-Smith car works employed 1800 men in 1905), carriages and wagons, sewingmachines (the Davis Sewing Machine Co.), automobiles, clothing, flour, malt liquors, paper, furniture, tobacco and soap. The total value of the manufactured product, under the "factory system," was $31,015,293 in 1900 and $39,596,773 in 1905.
The chief industries of the place are the making of cigars, malt and machinery; also of albums, portfolios and other articles in leather.
The town has a handsome church (Early English and Decorated), a grammar school, and some trade in coal, timber, malt and cheese.
He repeatedly failed in business, notably as manager of a malt-house, largely because of his incessant attention to politics; but in the Boston townmeeting he became a conspicuous example of the efficiency of that institution for training in statecraft.
It is especially used for drying hops and malt, and in blast furnaces where a high temperature is required, but it is not suited for reverberatory furnaces.
The values of other products in 1905 were as follows: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $15,620,931; lumber and timber products (which employed the largest average number of wage-earners-13,332, or 27.2 per cent.), $16,278,240; cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $10,472,742; printing and publishing, $7,782,247; foundry and machine shop products, 1905, $4,952,827; malt liquors, $4,153,938; saddlery and harness, 1905, $3,251,525.
The leading manufacturing industries in 1905, with the product-value of each in this year, were slaughtering and meat-packing ($4,040,162), foundry and machine shop work ($3,146,914), flour and grist milling ($ 2, 79 8, 74 0), lumber manufacturing and planing ($2,519,081), printing and publishing (newspapers and periodicals, $2,097,339 and book and job printing, $1,278,841), car construction and repairing ($1,549,836) - in 1910 there were railway shops here of the Southern Pacific, Pacific Electric, Los Angeles Street, Salt Lake and Santa Fe railways - and the manufacture of confectionery ($953,915), furniture ($879,910) and malt liquors ($789,393).
The chief manufactures of the town are linen goods, soap, malt, and agricultural implements, and a brisk trade is carried on in cattle, grain and geese.
Lesser interests, in the order of importance, with the product value of each in 1905, were: rubber goods ($53,133,020), tanned, curried and finished leather ($33,35 2, 999), in the manufacture of which Massachusetts ranked second among the states; paper and wood pulp' ($32,012,247), in the production of which the state ranked second among the states of the Union; slaughtering and meat packing ($30,253,838); printing and publishing ($33,900,7}8, of which $21,020,237 was the value of newspapers and periodicals); clothing ($21,724,056); electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies ($15,882,216); lumber ($12,636,329); iron and steel, steel works and rolling-mills products ($ 11, 947,73 1; less than in 1900); cordage and twine ($11,173,521), in the manufacture of which Massachusetts was second only to New York; furniture ($11,092,581); malt liquors ($11,080,944); jewelry ($10,073,595), Massachusetts ranking second to Rhode Island; confectionery ($9,317,996), in which Massachusetts was third among the states.
All sorts of small dairy utensils, chairs, malt-shovels, &c., are made of beech, the growth of which forms a feature of the surrounding country.
This race was formerly used for malt and beer, but owing to its larger amount of gluten as compared with starch it is less adapted for brewing than the two-rowed sorts.
Previous to the war the present Czechoslovak territories were responsible for 92% of the sugar produced by Austria-Hungary, for 46% of the spirits, beer 57%, malt 87%, foodstuffs 50%, chemicals 75%, metals 60%, porcelain too %, glass 90%, cotton goods 75%, woollen goods 80%, jute 90%, leather 70%, gloves 90%, boots 75%, paper 60%.
The chief manufactures are silk goods (21.6% of all in value) and other textiles, but large quantities of foundry and machine-shop products, malt liquors, flour, and planing mill products are also manufactured.
Foundry and machine shop products, hosiery and knit goods, wooden boxes, flour and grist mill products, and malt liquors are other important manufactures; the value of wooden boxes increased from $979,758 in 1900 to $2,565,612 in 1905, or 161.9%, and the value of hosiery and knit goods increased during the same period from $2,592,829 to $3,974,290, or 53.3%.
Once every four years in cities and once in two years in towns the question of licence or no-licence must be submitted to a vote of the electorate, and in a no-licence town or city no bar-room or saloon is to be permitted; in such a town or city, however, malt liquor, cider and light wines may be sold at a railway restaurant and an inn-keeper may serve liquors to his bona-fide registered guests.
Its industries include iron and steel works, breweries, distilleries and brickyards, and the manufacture of starch, sugar, malt, machinery and artificial manure.
It has important textile, malt and sugar industries, distilling, brewing and milling, manufactures of agricultural implements and lucifer matches.
The principal manufactures are malt liquors, flour and gristmill products and steam railway cars.
The value of the principal products in 1900 was as follows: slaughtering and meat packing, $9,631,187 (in 1905 slaughtering and meat-packing $ 12, 2 16,433, and slaughtering, not including meat-packing, $3,9 1 9,94 0); foundry and machine shop products, $6,816,057 (1905, $11,402,855); linseed oil, $6,271,170; cars and shop construction, $4,513,333(1905, $3,609,471); malt liquors, $4,269,973 (1905, $5,187,216); soap and candles, $3,818,571 (in 1905, soap $4,79 2, 9 1 5); flour and grist mill products, $3,263,697 (1905, $9,807,906); lumber and planing mill products, $3,095,760 (1905, $4,186,668); clothing, $3, 2 4 6, 7 2 3 (1905, $4,231,126); iron and steel products, $2,624,547.
In 1905 the twelve leading manufactures, with the value of each, were: steel and malleable iron, $363,773,577; foundry and machineshop products, consisting most largely of steam locomotives, metalworking machinery and pumping machinery, $119,650,913; pigiron, $107,455,267; leather, $69,427,852; railway cars and repairs by steam railway companies, $61,021,374; refined petroleum, $47,459,5 02; silk and silk goods, $39,333,520; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $39,079,122; flour and grist-mill products, $38,518,702; refined sugar and molasses, $37,182,504; worsted goods, $35,683,015; and malt liquors, $34,863,823.
Among the city's manufactures are flour, planing-mill products, malt liquors, soda and farming implements.
There are several active industries, notably the manufacture of majolica and terra-cotta wares, machinery, gloves, beer, malt, cheese and sugar, while large pig markets are held here.
Roofing tiles were manufactured in Berkhampstead as early as the 13th century, and in Elizabeth's reign the making of malt was the chief industry.
Other leading manufactures are malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), distilled liquors ($15,976,523), rubber and elastic goods ($15,963,603), furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agricultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803582), lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles.
The principal manufactures are hardware, foundry and machine shop products, ammunition and fire-arms (the Winchester Company), carriages and wagons, malt liquors, paper boxes and corsets.
Zleffcb are t4e pure in hert:for the y f malt l e (fo b .
In 1905 the total value of the factory product of San Jose was $6,388,445 (94.1% more than in 1900); nearly onehalf ($3,039,803) was the value of canned and preserved fruits and vegetables, $619,532 of planing-mill products, and $518,728 of malt liquors - much barley is grown in the Santa Clara Valley.
In the manufacture of vehicles, harness, leather, hardwood lumber, wood-working machinery, machine tools, printing ink, soap, pig-iron, malt liquors, whisky, shoes, clothing, cigars and tobacco, furniture, cooperage goods, iron and steel safes and vaults, and pianos, also in the packing of meat, especially pork,' it ranks very high among the cities of the Union.