Dietary magnesium deficiency is rare because the mineral is found in nearly all foods, but it can occur through poor diet or in malnutrition, or result from excessive losses due to severe diarrhea or vomiting.
Some prenatal factors known to contribute to growth retardation include a variety of maternal health problems, including toxemia, kidney and heart disease, infections such as rubella and maternal malnutrition.
Bone age assessments are, therefore, used in pediatric evaluation, especially when malnutrition, malabsorption, food intolerance, or endocrinopathies (such as hypopituitarism or hypothyroidism) are suspected.
The absence of edema (fluid retention) distinguishes marasmus-like secondary PEM, a gradual wasting process that begins with weight loss and progresses to mild, moderate, or severe malnutrition (cachexia).
Malnutrition is a condition that develops when the body does not get the proper amount of protein, energy (calories), vitamins, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function.
Many patients require assistance eating and drinking, and weight loss, malnutrition and dehydration are signs that care is not being taken to ensure that the patients are getting adequate food and water.
It may also be necessary when the patient's physical health has deteriorated to a point where life-sustaining treatment is necessary, such as with severe malnutrition associated with anorexia nervosa.
Illness or trauma during infancy or early childhood, including infections, high fever, malnutrition, or disorders such as congenital syphilis or Down syndrome, can cause misshapen or discolored teeth.
Episodes of numbness and tingling are more common among people with diabetes, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, malnutrition, or who experience mechanical trauma, especially to their limbs, neck or spine.
Where the malnutrition is the effect of poorness in the quality of the blood, the results are of course more widespread.