It is a white metal of bluish tint and is malleable and ductile.
- The metals and alloys which are neither malleable nor ductile can only be worked into required shapes by melting and casting in moulds.
It takes a brilliant polish, is in a high degree malleable and ductile, and in tenacity it only falls short of iron, exceeding in that quality both silver and gold.
Labor will fall, material costs will fall, materials will be better, stronger, greener, prettier, lighter, more malleable, and just altogether better.
When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.
The principal manufactures of Fairfield are farm waggons, farming implements, drain-tile, malleable iron, cotton gloves and mittens and cotton garments.
So strong is the effect of carbon that the use to which the metal is put, and indeed its division into its two great classes, the malleable one, comprising steel and wrought iron, with less than 2.20% of carbon, and the unmalleable one, cast iron, with more than this quantity, are based on carbon-content.
The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.
(Tungsten steel and certain classes of manganese steel are malleable only when red-hot.) Normal or carbon steel contains between 0.30 and 2.20% of carbon, enough to make it harden greatly when cooled suddenly, but not enough to prevent it from being usefully malleable when hot.
Malleable cast iron is iron which has been cast in the condition of cast iron, and made malleable by subsequent treatment without fusion.
Why, then, is this material malleable, though the common grey cast iron, which is made up of about the same constituents and often in about the same proportion, is brittle ?
The general procedure in the manufacture of chilled and of malleable castings has been described in §§ 30 and 31.
The many steel objects which need an extremely hard outer surface but a softer and more malleable interior may be carburized superficially by heating them in contact with charcoal or other carbonaceous matter, for instance for between 5 and 48 hours at a temperature of 800° to goo° C. This is known as " case hardening."
This is only possible with malleable and ductile metals and alloys.
Wrought or malleable iron has less of carbon and other elements in its composition than has cast iron.
Native copper, sometimes termed by miners malleable or virgin copper, occurs as a mineral having all the properties of the smelted metal.
It is the most malleable and ductile of all metals with the exception of gold: one gramme can be drawn out into a wire 180 metres long, and the leaf can be beaten out to a thickness of 0.0002 5 mm.; traces of arsenic, antimony, bismuth and lead, however, make it brittle.
The temperature is now raised to a white heat, and the product led by malleable iron pipes into condensing troughs containing water, when it condenses.
Indium is a soft malleable metal, melting at 155° C. Its specific gravity is 7.421 and its specific heat 0.05695 (R.
This class of furnace is usually known as an open fire or hearth, and is represented in a more advanced stage of development by the Catalan, German and Walloon forges formerly used in the production of malleable iron.
The former have a very extended application in many branches of industry, being used by both founders and smelters in the fusion of metals; in the concentration of poor metallic compounds by fusion into regulus; in the reduction of lead and tin ores; for refining copper and silver; and for making malleable iron by the puddling processes and welding.
The two great essential discoveries were first that the rapid passage of air through molten cast iron raised its temperature above the melting point of low-carbon steel, or as it was then called " malleable iron," and second that this low-carbon steel, which Bessemer was the first to make in important quantities, was in fact an extraordinarily valuable substance when made under proper conditions.
Though all true cast iron is brittle, in the sense that it is not usefully malleable, i.e.
This is effected by stirring the molten metal with a pole of green wood (" poling "); the products which arise from the combustion and distillation of the wood reduce the oxide to metal, and if the operation be properly conducted " tough-pitch " copper, soft, malleable and exhibiting a lustrous silky fracture, is obtained.
Either by the Phoenicians or by the Greeks metallurgy was taught to men who no sooner recognized the nature and malleable properties of copper than they learnt that by application of heat a substance could be manufactured with tin far better suited to their purposes.
Hence tin and lead, though very malleable, are little ductile.
Basins made of pure malleable nickel are free from this drawback; they work as well as platinum, and rather better than silver ones do.
It is malleable and ductile.
In making malleable castings the annealing, i.e.
It is a malleable metal, of specific gravity 1.64 (Nilson and Pettersson) and a specific heat of 0.4079.
The after-treatment of castings by annealing exercises great influence on results in malleable cast iron and steel.