And Malik-al-Adil had still three years to run.
Peace and security being established in his dominions, he convoked an assembly of the states and declared his son Malik Shah his heir and successor.
Malak-bel has been explained as " messenger of Bel "; but more probably Malak is the common Babylonian epithet malik given to various gods, and means " counsellor "; Malak-bel will then be the sun as the visible representative of Bel.
On the death of Malik Shah, the last of the great Seljukian emperors (1092), the empire dissolved.
Henry thus gained a basis in the Levant; while the death of Saladin in 1193, followed by a civil war between his brother, Malik-alAdil, and his sons for the possession of his dominions, weakened the position of the Mahommedans.
Was able to make a truce with Malik-al-Adil for the next five years.
If Venetian cupidity had not originally deflected the Crusade (and it was the view of contemporary writers that Venice had committed her first treason against Christianity by diverting the Crusade from Egypt in order to get commercial concessions from Malik-al-Ad11, 2 yet it had at any rate profited exceedingly from that deflection; and the Hohenstaufen and their protégé Alexius only reaped dust and ashes.
Malik-al-Adil, the brother of Saladin, had by 1200 succeeded to his brother's possessions not only in Egypt but also in Syria, and he granted the Christians a series of truces (1198-1203, 1204-1210, 1211-1217).
In spite of dissensions between the cardinal and the king, and in spite of the offers of Malik-al-Kamil (who succeeded Malik-al-Adil at the end of 1218), the crusaders finally carried the siege to a successful conclusion by the end of 1219.
The crusaders were driven back towards Damietta; and at the end of August 1221 Pelagius had to make a treaty with Malik-al-Kamil, by which he gained a free retreat and the surrender of the Holy Cross at the price of the restoration of Damietta.
Yet by adroit use of his powers of diplomacy, and by playing upon the dissensions which raged between the descendants of Saladin's brother (Malik-al-Adil), he was able, without striking a blow, to conclude a treaty with the sultan of Egypt which gave him all that Richard I.
The Ayyubites had always been, on the whole, chivalrous and tolerant: Saladin and his successors, Malik-al-Adil and Malik-alKamil, had none of them shown an implacable enmity to the Christians.
It has already been noticed that such a war between the sons of Malik-al-Adil accounts in large Ayyubite rulers serves to illustrate the text :- hy.
Malik-al-Kamil, Malik-al-Muazzam, Sultan of Egypt, Sultan of Damascus, t 1238.
Malik-al-Nasir Malik-al-Adil II.
Malik-al-SalihNajm of Kerak.
Malik-al-Ashraf, ruler of Khelat, and after 1227 of Damascus, t 1237.
Malik-al-Salih Isma'il, sultan of Damascus, 1237-1244.
From him Damascus passed to Malik-alSalih Ayyub of Egypt at the battle of Gaza.
The revolution in Egypt in 1250 separated Damascus from Cairo more trenchantly than they had ever been separated since 1171: while a Mameluke ruled in Cairo, Malik-al-Nasir of Aleppo was elected as sultan by the emirs of Damascus.
On the very eve of the Fifth Crusade, Venice had concluded a commercial treaty with Malik-al-Kamil of Egypt; just before the fall of Acre the Genoese, the king of Aragon and the king of Sicily had all concluded advantageous treaties with the sultan Kala`un.
Having received permission to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, he reached Cairo, where he was presented to the sultan, al-Malik udh-Dhahir Barkuk, who insisted on his remaining there, and in the year 1384 made him grand cadi of the Malikite rite for Cairo.
His standard work on algebra, written in Arabic, and other treatises of a similar character raised him at once to the foremost rank among the mathematicians of that age, and induced Sultgn Malik-Shgh to summon him in A.H.
Of these the earliest is Avenzoar or Abumeron, that is, Abu Merwan `Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr (beginning of 12th century), a member of a family which gave several distinguished members to the medical profession.
A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanitish origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were called by the Babylonians.
AVENZOAR, or Abumeron [Abu Merwan 'Abdal-Malik ibn Zuhr], Arabian physician, who flourished at the beginning of the 12th century, was born at Seville, where he exercised his profession with great reputation.
In 691 Abdalmalik (`Abdul-Malik) determined to crush his rival and sent his general Hajjaj against Mecca.
About a century later (1075-1094) the 'Abbasid caliph was again recognized as spiritual head owing to the success in arms of his protector the Seljuk Malik-Shah.
Till the year 1079 the Persian year resembled that of the ancient Egyptians, consisting of 365 days without intercalation; but at that time the Persian calendar was reformed by Jelal ud-Din Malik Shah, sultan of Khorasan, and a method of intercalation adopted which, though less convenient, is considerably more accurate than the Julian.
The city possesses five gates, two on the northern face, the Kutab-chak near the north-east angle of the wall, and the Malik at the re-entering angle of the Ark-i-nao; and three others in the centres of the remaining faces, the Irak gate on the west, the Kandahar gate on the south and the Kushk gate on the east face.
Babylonia and Assyria, however, seem to be out of the question: malik, " arbiter, decider," is there an epithet of various gods, and as an appellative means "prince" and not king; further, little ' In Hos.
Bryennius successfully defended the walls of Constantinople against the attacks of Godfrey of Bouillon (1097); conducted the peace negotiations between Alexius and Bohemund, prince of Antioch (ll08); and played an important part in the defeat of Malik-Shah, the Seljuk sultan of Iconium (1116).
Malik Shah, third of the Seljuk dynasty of Persia, passed the Oxus about the end of the 11th century, and subdued the whole country watered by that river and the Jaxartes.
The Discovery Of The Period Of Thirty Three Years Is Ascribed To Omar Khayyam, One Of The Eight Astronomers Appointed Byjelal Ud Din Malik Shah, Sultan Of Khorasan, To Reform Or Construct A Calendar, About The Year 1079 Of Our Era.
The real ruler at Bagdad was a Turk named Basasiri, lieutenant of the last Buyid, Malik-ar-Rahim.
Malik Shah regulated also the affairs of Asia Minor and Syria, conceding the latter province as an hereditary fief to his brother Tutush, who established himself at Damascus and killed Atsiz.
At his instigation the calendar was revised, and a new era, dating from the reign of Malik Shah and known as the Jelalian, was introduced.
He had fallen into disfavour because of his unwillingness to join in the intrigues of the princess Turkan Khatun, who wished to secure the succession to the throne for her infant son Mahmud at the expense of the elder sons of Malik Shah.
After the death of Malik Shah the head of the family was not strong enough to enforce obedience, and consequently the central government broke up into several independent dynasties.
Notwithstanding the intrigues of Turkan Khatun, Malik Shah was succeeded by his elder son Barkiyaroq (1092-1104), whose short reign was a series of rebellions and strange adventures such as one may imagine in the story of a youth who is by turns a powerful prince and a miserable fugitive.'
In 1117 he led an expedition against Ghazni and bestowed the throne upon Bahram Shah, who was also obliged to mention Sinjar's name first in the official prayer at the Ghaznavid capital - a prerogative that neither Alp Arslan nor Malik Shah had attained.
Mention has been made of his war with Malik Shah and of his ensuing death (1073).
But after the death of Toghrul Shah (1170) his three sons disputed with each other for the possession of the throne, and implored foreign assistance, till the country became utterly devastated and fell an easy prey to some bands of Ghuzz, who, under the leadership of Malik Dinar (1185), marched into Kerman after harassing Sinjar's dominions.
Owing to these family discords the decision of Malik Shah was necessary to settle the affairs of Asia Minor and Syria; he kept the sons of Suleiman in captivity, and committed the war against the unbelieving Greeks to his generals Bursuk (IIpovovx) and Buzan (HovTavos).
The sultan Mahommed, however, set at liberty his eldest son Malik Shah, who reigned for some time, until he was treacherously murdered (it is not quite certain by whom), being succeeded by his brother Masud, who established himself at Konia (Iconium), from that time the residence of the Seljuks of Ram.
Sixteen Mahommedan princes, mostly Ayyubite, of Syria and Mesopotamia, under the leadership of Malik al-Kamil, prince of Egypt, marched with considerable forces into Asia Minor against him.
In 1307, owing to non-payment of tribute, a fresh series of Mussulman incursions began, under Malik Kafur, issuing in the final ruin of the Yadava power; and in 1338 the reduction of the Deccan was completed by Mahommed ben Tughlak.
Abd al-Malik, 8690 (70.5708).
Abd al-Malik, 105 (724).
Abd al-Malik b.
Abd al-Malik b.
Malik al-Khuzgi, 198 (813814).
Malik al-N~ir Salab al-din YCsuf b.
Malik al-Aziz Imgd al-din Othman, 589595 (1193-1198).
Malik al-MansCr Mahommed, 595596 (1198-1199).
Malik al-Adi~ Saif al-din AbC Bakr, 596615 (1199-1218).
Malik AL-KAMIL Mahommed, 615635 (1218f 238).
Malik al-Adil II.
The inscription was partly illegible.