And Malik-al-Adil had still three years to run.
Peace and security being established in his dominions, he convoked an assembly of the states and declared his son Malik Shah his heir and successor.
Malak-bel has been explained as " messenger of Bel "; but more probably Malak is the common Babylonian epithet malik given to various gods, and means " counsellor "; Malak-bel will then be the sun as the visible representative of Bel.
On the death of Malik Shah, the last of the great Seljukian emperors (1092), the empire dissolved.
Henry thus gained a basis in the Levant; while the death of Saladin in 1193, followed by a civil war between his brother, Malik-alAdil, and his sons for the possession of his dominions, weakened the position of the Mahommedans.
Was able to make a truce with Malik-al-Adil for the next five years.
If Venetian cupidity had not originally deflected the Crusade (and it was the view of contemporary writers that Venice had committed her first treason against Christianity by diverting the Crusade from Egypt in order to get commercial concessions from Malik-al-Ad11, 2 yet it had at any rate profited exceedingly from that deflection; and the Hohenstaufen and their protégé Alexius only reaped dust and ashes.
Malik-al-Adil, the brother of Saladin, had by 1200 succeeded to his brother's possessions not only in Egypt but also in Syria, and he granted the Christians a series of truces (1198-1203, 1204-1210, 1211-1217).
In spite of dissensions between the cardinal and the king, and in spite of the offers of Malik-al-Kamil (who succeeded Malik-al-Adil at the end of 1218), the crusaders finally carried the siege to a successful conclusion by the end of 1219.
The crusaders were driven back towards Damietta; and at the end of August 1221 Pelagius had to make a treaty with Malik-al-Kamil, by which he gained a free retreat and the surrender of the Holy Cross at the price of the restoration of Damietta.
Yet by adroit use of his powers of diplomacy, and by playing upon the dissensions which raged between the descendants of Saladin's brother (Malik-al-Adil), he was able, without striking a blow, to conclude a treaty with the sultan of Egypt which gave him all that Richard I.
The Ayyubites had always been, on the whole, chivalrous and tolerant: Saladin and his successors, Malik-al-Adil and Malik-alKamil, had none of them shown an implacable enmity to the Christians.
It has already been noticed that such a war between the sons of Malik-al-Adil accounts in large Ayyubite rulers serves to illustrate the text :- hy.
Malik-al-Kamil, Malik-al-Muazzam, Sultan of Egypt, Sultan of Damascus, t 1238.
Malik-al-Nasir Malik-al-Adil II.
Malik-al-SalihNajm of Kerak.
Malik-al-Ashraf, ruler of Khelat, and after 1227 of Damascus, t 1237.
Malik-al-Salih Isma'il, sultan of Damascus, 1237-1244.
From him Damascus passed to Malik-alSalih Ayyub of Egypt at the battle of Gaza.
The revolution in Egypt in 1250 separated Damascus from Cairo more trenchantly than they had ever been separated since 1171: while a Mameluke ruled in Cairo, Malik-al-Nasir of Aleppo was elected as sultan by the emirs of Damascus.
On the very eve of the Fifth Crusade, Venice had concluded a commercial treaty with Malik-al-Kamil of Egypt; just before the fall of Acre the Genoese, the king of Aragon and the king of Sicily had all concluded advantageous treaties with the sultan Kala`un.
Having received permission to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, he reached Cairo, where he was presented to the sultan, al-Malik udh-Dhahir Barkuk, who insisted on his remaining there, and in the year 1384 made him grand cadi of the Malikite rite for Cairo.
His standard work on algebra, written in Arabic, and other treatises of a similar character raised him at once to the foremost rank among the mathematicians of that age, and induced Sultgn Malik-Shgh to summon him in A.H.
Of these the earliest is Avenzoar or Abumeron, that is, Abu Merwan `Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr (beginning of 12th century), a member of a family which gave several distinguished members to the medical profession.
A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanitish origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were called by the Babylonians.
AVENZOAR, or Abumeron [Abu Merwan 'Abdal-Malik ibn Zuhr], Arabian physician, who flourished at the beginning of the 12th century, was born at Seville, where he exercised his profession with great reputation.
In 691 Abdalmalik (`Abdul-Malik) determined to crush his rival and sent his general Hajjaj against Mecca.
About a century later (1075-1094) the 'Abbasid caliph was again recognized as spiritual head owing to the success in arms of his protector the Seljuk Malik-Shah.
Till the year 1079 the Persian year resembled that of the ancient Egyptians, consisting of 365 days without intercalation; but at that time the Persian calendar was reformed by Jelal ud-Din Malik Shah, sultan of Khorasan, and a method of intercalation adopted which, though less convenient, is considerably more accurate than the Julian.
The city possesses five gates, two on the northern face, the Kutab-chak near the north-east angle of the wall, and the Malik at the re-entering angle of the Ark-i-nao; and three others in the centres of the remaining faces, the Irak gate on the west, the Kandahar gate on the south and the Kushk gate on the east face.
Abd al-Malik, 8690 (70.5708).
Abd al-Malik, 105 (724).
Abd al-Malik b.
Malik al-Khuzgi, 198 (813814).
Malik al-N~ir Salab al-din YCsuf b.
Malik al-Aziz Imgd al-din Othman, 589595 (1193-1198).
Malik al-MansCr Mahommed, 595596 (1198-1199).
Malik al-Adi~ Saif al-din AbC Bakr, 596615 (1199-1218).
Malik AL-KAMIL Mahommed, 615635 (1218f 238).
Malik al-Adil II.
In 1307, owing to non-payment of tribute, a fresh series of Mussulman incursions began, under Malik Kafur, issuing in the final ruin of the Yadava power; and in 1338 the reduction of the Deccan was completed by Mahommed ben Tughlak.