Existing marsupials may be divided into three main divisions or sub-orders, of which the first, or Polyprotodontia, is common to America and Australasia; the second, or Paucituberculata, is exclusively South American; while the third, or Diprotodonts, is as solely Australasian inclusive of a few in the eastern Austro-Malayan islands.
They are skilful hunters, however, catch fish by in geniously constructed traps, and live almost entirely on jungle-roots of these people is found in Upper Perak, and the members of this clan have acquired some knowledge of the art of planting, &c. They they have been raided by the latter, and many Negritos are to be found in captivity in some of the Malayan villages on the eastern side of the peninsula.
It has also been customary to include the Sakai in the category of Malayan races, but this too is undoubtedly incorrect.
Representatives of their race are also found scattered among the Malayan villages throughout the country, and also along the coast, but these have intermixed so much with the Malays, and have acquired so many customs, &c., from their more civilized neighbours, that they can no longer be regarded as typical of the race to which they belong.
An examination of their language seems to indicate that, it belongs to the Mon-Khmer group of languages, and the anthropological information forthcoming concerning the Sakai points to the conclusion that they show a greater affinity to the people of the Mon-Khmer races than to the Malayan stock.
On account of this, it has been suggested that in a forgotten past the Sakai were themselves the fashioners of the stone implements, and certain it is that all tools which have no representatives among the stone kelts are known to the Sakai by obvious corruptions of their Malayan names.
Most of the birds also are derived from the distant Indian region, while the IndoBurmese and Indo-Malayan regions are represented to a far less degree.
The Ismdo-Malayan sub-region includes the Indian and Malayan peninsulas, Cochin-China and southern China, the Malayan archipelago, and Philippines, with New Guinea and Polynesia, excluding the Sandwich Islands.
In the north-west it meets the Mediterraneo-Oriental and in the north-east the Chino-Ja~banese sub-regions, while south India and Ceylon have received a Malayan contribution.
Palms are poorly represented in the sub-region and are of an Indo-Malayan type.
Palms are poorly represented in the sub-region and are of an Indo-Malayan type.
Naturally no line whatever can be drawn between the Oriental and the Palaearctic subregions, and many otherwise essentially Indo-Malayan families extend far into the Australian realm, far across Wallace's line, whilst the reverse takes place to a much more moderate extent.
The Malayan province comprising the Malay islands, besides the Malay peninsula, and the very remarkable Philippines, possess an extraordinary number of peculiar and interesting genera.
Junghuhn, have been associated with the Battas, but are probably a distinct branch of the pre-Malayan or Indonesian race.
The Balinese language belongs to the same group of the Malayan class as the Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, &c., but is as distinct from each of these as French is from Italian.
4), a Malayan genus found beneath fallen trees, a situation for which its compressed shape is admirably adapted.
The vegetation is similar to that of Fiji, but more definitely Indo-Malayan in character; it embraces all the plants of the groups to the east with many that are absent there.
The truly tropical flora of the hotter and wetter regions of eastern India is continuous with that of the Malayan peninsula and islands, and extends along the lower ranges of the Himalaya, gradually becoming less marked and rising to lower elevations as we go westward, where the rainfall diminishes and the winter cold increases.
The whole number of species of plants indigenous in the region of south-eastern Asia, which includes India and the Malayan peninsula and islands, from about the 65th to the 105th meridian, was estimated by Sir J.
Nepenthes may be mentioned as a genus specially developed in the Malayan area, and extending from New Caledonia to Madagascar; it is found as far north as the Khasi hills, and in Ceylon, but does not appear on the Himalaya or in the peninsula of India.
The insects of all southern Asia, including India south of the Himalaya, China, Siam and the Malayan Islands, belong to one.
The European forms seem to extend to about 30° N., south of which the Indo-Malayan types are met with, Japan being of the Europeo-Asiatic group. The northern forms extend generally along the south coast of the Mediterranean up to the border of the great desert, and from the Levant to the Caspian.
" Wallace's line " dividing the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan sub-regions is frequently transgressed in the range of Malayan insects.
Malayan folk, who are the dominant race of the Malay Peninsula and of the Malay Archipelago.
Broadly speaking, all the brown races which inhabit the portion of Asia south of Siam and Indo-China, and the islands from the Philippines to Java, and from Sumatra to Timor, may be described as belonging to the Malayan family, if the aboriginal tribes, such as the Sakai and Semang in the Malay Peninsula, the Bataks in Sumatra, and the Muruts in Borneo, be excepted.
For the purposes of this article, however, only those among these races which bear the name of Orang Malayu, speak the Malayan language, and represent the dominant people of the land, can be included under the title of Malays.
These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller islands of the archipelago.
Though in these lands they have for not less than a thousand years enjoyed the position of the dominant race, they all possess a tradition that they are not indigenous, and that their first rulers "came out of the sea," with a large band of Malayan warriors in their train.
For instance, the names which they give to certain fruits, such as the duri-an, the rambut-an and the pulas-an, which are indigenous in the Malayan countries, and are not found elsewhere, are all compound words meaning respectively the thorny, the hairy and the twisted fruit.
In the Malay Peninsula itself there is abundant evidence, ethnological and philological, of at least two distinct immigrations of people of the Malayan stock, the earlier incursions, it is probable, taking place from the eastern archipelago to the south, the later invasion spreading across the Straits of Malacca from Sumatra at a comparatively recent date.
The fact that the semi-wild tribes, which are ethnologically Malayan and distinct from the aboriginal Semang and Sakai, are met with almost invariably in the neighbourhood of the coast would seem to indicate that they reached the peninsula by a sea, not by a land route, a supposition which is strengthened by their almost amphibious habits.
Analogous cases are supplied by the mimicry that exists between some of the orioles (Mimeta) and the friar-birds (Philemon or Tropidorhynchus) of the Austro-Malayan Islands.
The few mammals, such as deer, civet, Digs, shrews and monkeys, as wellas the birds and insects, resemble ordinary Malayan forms.
The bulk of the population is certainly Papuan, but intermingled with Malayan, Polynesian and other elements; hence it presents an extraordinary diversity of physical types, as is clearly shown by the portraits figured in H.
The natives, still mainly independent of their nominal Dutch and Portuguese rulers, are divided into many hostile tribes, speaking as many as forty distinct Papuan and Malayan languages or dialects.
In some islands are people of obvious Papuan blood, while in others are Polynesian or Malayan tribes.
The aborigines are Papuans, but much mixed with Malayan and perhaps Polynesian elements.
The small bruang or Malayan bear (Ursus malayanus) is of a jetblack colour, with a white semilunar mark on the chest, and attains a length of 41 ft.
The singular fact of the existence of animals so closely allied as the Malayan and the American tapirs in such distant regions of the earth and in no intervening places is accounted for by the geological history of the race, for the tapirs once had a very wide distribution.
The land molluscs show relationship with the Indian and the Malayan sub-regions; but many forms have here their centre, and have spread hence into Australia and the Pacific islands.
In the low and sub-mountainous lands the flora is a mixture of Malayan, Australian and Polynesian forms. There are, according to Muller, twice as many palms known from New Guinea as from Australia.
They are, for instance, no longer found in Europe and North Asia, but only in Africa and in portions of the Indian and Indo-Malayan regions.