Malaria increased in strength as the population diminished.
It is subject, however, to extreme and rapid variations in temperature, to alternations of dry and humid winds (the latter, called catias, being irritating and oppressive), to chilling night mists brought up from the coast by the westerly winds, and to other influences productive of malaria, catarrh, fevers, bilious disorders and rheumatism.
The climate is hot and malaria is prevalent.
The mortality from malaria in 1902 was higher than for any other part of Italy-1037 persons, or 154 per 100,000 (Basilicata, 141; Apulia, 104; Calabria, 77; Sicily, 76; province of Rome, 27).
With regard to the parasites, which are the actual cause of malaria in man, an account of them is given under the heading of Parasitic Diseases, and little need be said about them here.
The species best known in connexion with malaria are A.
Sir Patrick Manson has suggested that the problem of stamping out malaria may be assisted by the discovery of some at present unknown factors.
The city of Panama was formerly a stronghold of yellow fever and malaria, which American sanitary measures have practically eradicated.
Then, turning his attention to the malaria of birds, he worked out the life-history of these cells within the body of the mosquito.
In 1898 it was conclusively shown in Italy that if a mosquito E of the Anopheles variety bites a person suffering from malaria, and is kept long enough for the parasite to develop in the salivary gland, and is then allowed to bite a healthy person, the latter will in due time develop malaria.
(2) Much attention has been directed in scientific circles to the possibility of "stamping out" epidemic malaria by administrative measures.
Comes sweeping into it; and thus, while all the muddy deposit of the rivers is swept away, the malaria is at the same time removed, and by this means the city enjoys so good a sanitary reputation that the government has fixed on it as a place for the reception and training of gladiators."
But probably the greater part of the enormous total of deaths set down to malaria is due to the malarial cachexia.
Similarly, the subsidence of malaria during cold weather and its seasonal prevalence find an adequate explanation in the conditions governing insect life.
Malaria is almost unknown and chest complaints are rare.
Of Tuscany (1822-1844) made the first successful efforts to counteract the malaria which has affected the district, by drainage, the filling up of swamps, and the establishment of new farms, and since his time continuous efforts have been made with considerable success.
By living in protected houses and wearing gloves and veils at night all the staff escaped malaria except one or two attendants.
The discovery of the parasite of malaria by Laveran, and of the method by which it gains entrance to the human body, through the bite of a particular variety of mosquito, by Manson and Ross, promises much in the way of eradication of the disease in the future.
The disseminators of malaria are exclusively Anophelinae, but even among these it is only certain species that are dangerous, since the others appear to be incapable of acting as hosts of the parasites.
Yet in some Tusban provinces, as, for instance, that of Grosseto, where malaria rages, laborers are organized in gangs under corporals, who undertake harvest work.
Maria di Porto erected in the town in the 16th century (owing to malaria, as in the case of those of Classe), and of S.
MALARIA, an Italian colloquial word (from mala, bad, and aria, air), introduced into English medical literature by Macculloch (1827) as a substitute for the more restricted terms "marsh miasm" or "paludal poison."
Demonstrated by a series of accurate investigations, contributed by many workers, that malaria is caused by a microscopic parasite in the blood, into which it is introduced by the bites of certain species of mosquito.
An old popular belief current in different countries, and derived from common observation, connected mosquitoes with malaria, and from time to time this theory found support in more scientific quarters on general grounds, but it lacked demonstration and attracted little attention.
Following up this line of investigation, Major Ronald Ross in 1895 found that if a mosquito sucked blood containing the parasites they soon began to throw out flagellae, which broke away and became free; and in 1897 he discovered peculiar pigmented cells, which afterwards turned out to be the parasites of aestivo-autumnal malaria in an early stage of development, within the stomachwall of mosquitoes which had been fed on malarial blood.
The drug is not a true specific, as quinine is for malaria, since it rarely, if ever, prevents the cardiac damage usually done by rheumatic fever; but it entirely removes the agonizing pain, shortly after its administration, and, an hour or two later, brings down the temperature to normal.
Unfortunately several of these fertile tracts suffer severely from malaria (q.v.), and especially the great plain adjoining the Gulf of Tarentum, which in the early ages of history was surrounded by a girdle of Greek cities—some of which attained to almost unexampled prosperity—has for centuries past been given up to almost complete desolation.
As a refuge from the malaria, which prevailed at Classe itself, with fine 17th-century cloisters, contains the important museum, which has Roman and Byzantine antiquities, inscriptions, sculptures, jewelry, &c. - including the possible remains of a suit of gold armour of Theodoric - and a collection of Italian woodcuts; also the library with rare MSS.
The subject has a special interest for Italy, which is devastated by malaria, and Italian science has contributed materially to the solution of the problem.
To apply these discoveries to the malaria of man was an obvious step. In working out the details the Italian school have again taken a prominent part.
Thus we get a complete scientific demonstration of the causation of malaria in three stages: (1) the discovery of the parasite by Laveran; (2) its life-history in the human host and connexion with the fever demonstrated by the Italian observers; (3) its life-history in the alternate host, and the identification of the latter with a particular species of mosquito by Ross and Manson.
Mosquitoes caught by the experimenters, and sent to London, produced malaria in persons who submitted themselves to the bites of these insects at the London School of Tropical Medicine.
Of 24 protected persons, all escaped but four, and these had to be out at night or otherwise neglected precautions; of 38 unprotected persons, all contracted malaria except two, who had apparently acquired immunity.
For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.
The most important question raised by the mosquitoparasitic theory of malaria is that of prevention.
The "deadly" climates, to which so much dread attaches,, generally mean malaria, and the mastery of this disease would.
The city of Rome is an example of what can be done by drainage; situated in the midst of malaria, it is itself quite healthy.
At Ismailia malaria was reduced from 1551 cases in 1902 to 37 cases in 1905.
In Hong-Kong similar measures were carried out, with the result that the hospital admissions for malaria diminished from 1294 in 1901, the year when operations were begun, to 419 in 1905.
In spite of the difficulties, however, there is no doubt that a great deal can be done to reduce, if not stamp out, malaria by the methods indicated, which should be applied according to circumstances.
An encouraging example is afforded by the remarkable fact that malaria, which was once rife in certain districts of England, has now died out, although the Anopheles maculipennis mosquito still exists there.
- Celli, Malaria; Christy, Mosquitoes and Malaria; Manson, Tropical Diseases; Allbutt's System of Medicine; Ross, "Malaria," Quain's Dictionary of Medicine, 3rd ed.; The Practitioner, March, 1901 (Malaria Number); Lancet (Sept.
There is much malaria in the wooded districts of the east and on the higher campos, where the daily extremes of temperature are great, lung and bronchial diseases are common.
The occurrence was of course attributed to poison, although quite without foundation, being merely due to malaria, at that time very prevalent in Rome.
Melanine particles formed in the spleen in malaria, which pass along with the blood through the liver, are appropriated by the endothelial cells of the hepatic capillaries, and are found embedded within their substance.
1845) discovered the parasite of malaria, and truly conceived its relations to the disease; thus within two years were made two discoveries either of which was sufficient to make the honour of a century.
Before the end of the 19th century this discovery of the blood parasite of malaria was crowned by the hypothesis of Patrick Manson, proved by Ronald Ross, that malaria is propagated by a certain genus of gnat, which acts as an intermediate host of the parasite.
The climate of the coast belt is semi-tropical and malaria is prevalent; that of the highlands temperate.
Pelly heard of from the Ahl Murra Bedouins as once a fertile district, and which still produces dates, though, owing to malaria, it is now deserted; thence southward to the Hadramut valley no communication is known to exist.
Although it had long been suspected that these insects were in some way connected with malaria and other diseases, while that the species now called Stegomyia calopus was the carrier of yellow fever had been asserted by Finlay as early as 1881, it was not until the closing years of the 19th century that the brilliant researches of Ross in India, and of Grassi and others in Italy, directed the attention of the whole civilized world to mosquitoes as the exclusive agents in the dissemination of malarial fever.
There is reason to believe that malaria, yellow fever and filariasis are not the only diseases disseminated by mosquitoes.
All escaped malaria, which was rife in the immediate neighbourhood.
The result was that the houses were free from mosquitoes and no malaria occurred throughout the entire season, though there had been 40 cases in the previous year.
Birds are subject to malaria, which is caused by blood parasites akin to those in man and having a similar life-history.
Malaria prevails in the valley of the Webi Shebeli.
The island has a bad reputation for malaria, due to the fact that it offers a considerable quantity of breeding places for the Anopheles claviger, the mosquito whose bite conveys the infection.
I would rather ride on earth in an ox cart, with a free circulation, than go to heaven in the fancy car of an excursion train and breathe a malaria all the way.