Though the family lost most of its possessions during the Mahratta invasion in the 14th century, it never became tributary to any Malwa chief.
The wazir now bethought him that he had a good opportunity for satisfying an old quarrel against the adjoining tribe of Rohillas, who had played fast and loose with him while the Mahratta army was at hand.
But the government of Bombay had hurried on a rupture with the Mahratta confederacy at a time when France was on the point of declaring war against England, and when the mother-country found herself unable to subdue her rebellious colonists in America.
On the part of Bombay, the Mahratta war was conducted with procrastination and disgrace.
The Bhonsla Mahratta raja of Nagpur, whose dominions bordered on Bengal, was won over by the diplomacy of an emissary of Hastings.
The town has a station on the Southern Mahratta railway.
The centres of the cotton trade are Hubli and Gadag, junctions on the Southern Mahratta railway, which traverses the district in several directions.
Sindhia gave up the district of Ajmere to the British, and the pressure of the great Mahratta powers upon Rajputana was permanently withdrawn.
After 1707 it began to decline: the governors became independent: a powerful Mahratta confederacy arose in central India; Nadir Shah of Persia sacked Delhi; and Ahmed Shah made repeated invasions.
The etymology of the word Mahratta (Maratha) is uncertain.
There are indeed still three large native states nominally Mahratta: that of Sindhia near the borders of Hindustan in the north, that of Holkar in Malwa in the heart of the Indian continent, and that of the gaekwar in Gujarat on the western coast.
These states then are not to be included in the Mahratta nation, though they have a share in Mahratta history.
The Mahratta Brahmans possess, in an intense degree, the qualities of that famous caste, physical, intellectual and moral.
For instance, the peshwas, or heads of the Mahratta confederation which at one time dominated nearly all India, were Konkanast Brahmans.
With this and perhaps some other exceptions, there are not in the Mahratta country many large landlords, nor many of the superior tenure-holders whose position relatively to that of the peasantry has caused much discussion ii: other parts of India.
There are indeed many Mahratta chiefs still resident in the country, members of the aristocracy which formerly enjoyed much wealth and power.
The village community has always existed as the social unit in the Mahratta territories, though with less cohesion among its members than in the village communities of Hindustan and the Punjab.
The ancient offices pertaining to the village, as those of the headmen (patel), the village accountant, &c., are in working order throughout the Mahratta country.
The Mahratta peasantry possess manly fortitude under suffering and misfortune.
The Mahratta war-cry, "Har, Har, Mahadeo," referred to Siva.
Apart from the Mahratta Brahmans, as already mentioned, the Mahratta nobles and princes are not generally fine-looking men.
Bluff good-nature, a certain jocoseness, a humour pungent and ready, though somewhat coarse, a hot or even violent disposition, are characteristics of Mahratta chieftains.
Mahratta ladies and princesses have often taken a prominent part, for good or evil, in public affairs and dynastic intrigues.
It was against the Mahommedan king of Bijapur in the Deccan that Sivaji, the hero of Mahratta history, first rebelled in 1657.
The couch was worn out by ceaseless jumping by the children.
The great Mogul emperor's impoverished and enfeebled successor was fain to recognize the Mahratta state by a formal instrument.
The Mahratta king, a descendant of Sivaji, had become a roi fainéant, and the arrangement was negotiated by his Brahman minister, whose official designation was the peshwa.
14 a and grew in importance as the Mahratta kingdom rose, while the king sunk into the condition of a puppet.
Thus the Mahratta power was consolidated throughout nearly the whole of Maharashtra under the Brahman peshwa as virtual sovereign, with his capital at Poona, while the titular Mahratta raja or king had his court at the neighbouring city of Satara.
But these principalities, though independent respecting internal administration, and making war or peace with their neighbours according to opportunity, owned allegiance to the peshwa at Poona as the head of the Mahratta race.
Such was the Mahratta Empire which supplanted the Mogul Empire.
The Mahratta power grew and prospered till it embraced all western and most of central India.
In this way several Frenchmen - Benoit de Boigne, Perron and others - rose in the Mahratta service to a position dangerous to the British.
But the new system was unsuited to the Mahratta genius; it hampered the meteoric movements of the cavalry, which was obliged to manoeuvre in combination with the new artillery and the disciplined battalions.
Mahratta elders hence uttered predictions of military disaster which were in the end more than fulfilled.
The rapid and amazing success of the Mahratta confederation rendered it the largest Hindu power that ever existed in India.
Thus the Mahratta chouth came to have an ominous significance in Indian history.
The nascent Sikh power prevented Mahratta incursions from being permanently successful in the Punjab.
The defeat, however, did not essentially shake the Mahratta confederation.
The peshwa had fallen into grave difficulties with some of the principal members of the Mahratta confederation.
He therefore placed himself under British protection, and this led to the great Mahratta War, in which the Marquis Wellesley displayed those talents for military and political combination which rendered him illustrious.
Broughton, Letters written in a Mahratta Camp (1813); G.
The district is traversed by the Madras and Southern Mahratta railways, meeting on the eastern border at Guntakal junction, where another line branches off to Bezwada.
In 1635 the Carnatic was annexed to the Bijapur dominions, from which again it was wrested in 1680 by Sivaji, the founder of the Mahratta power.
Among the most conspicuous of these are the mosque of Aurangzeb, built as an intentional insult in the middle of the Hindu quarter; the Bisheshwar or Golden Temple, important less through architectural beauty than through its rank as the holiest spot in the holy city; and the Durga temple, which, like most of the other principal temples, is a Mahratta building of the 17th century.
The subsequent history of Benares contains two important events, the rebellion of Chait Singh in 1781, occasioned by the demands of Warren Hastings for money and troops to carry on the Mahratta War, and the Mutiny of 1857, when the energy and coolness of the European officials, chiefly of General Neill, carried the district successfully through the storm.
There are six main divisions of the people: the Dravidian tribes, who formerly held the country; Hindi-speaking immigrants from the north and north-west into Saugor, Damoh, the Nerbudda valley and the open country of Mandla and Seoni; Rajasthani-speaking immigrants from Central India into Nimar, Betul and parts of Hoshangabad, Narsinghpur and Chhindwara; Marathi-speaking immigrants from Bombay into Berar, the Mahratta districts and the southern tahsil of Betul; the Telugu castes in the Sironcha and Chanda tahsil of Chanda and the south of Bastar; and the Hindu immigrants into Chhattisgarh, who are supposed to have arrived many centuries ago when the Haihaya dynasty of Ratanpur rose into power.
Under their peaceful rule their territories flourished, until the weakening of the Mogul empire and the rise of the predatory Bundela and Mahratta powers, with the organized forces of which their semi-barbarous feudal levies were unable to cope, brought misfortune upon them.
In 17 4 2 the peshwa advanced to Mandla and exacted the payment of chauth (tributary blackmail), and from this time until 1781, when the successors of Sangram Sah were finally overthrown, Garha-Mandla remained practically a Mahratta dependency.
In 1741 Ratanpur had surrendered to the Mahratta leader Bhaskar Pant without a blow, and the ancient Rajput dynasty came to an end.
About the year 1735 the raja of Kalinjar's territory, including the present district of Banda, was bequeathed to Baji Rao, the Mahratta peshwa; and from the Mahrattas it passed by the treaties of 1802-1803 to the Company.
In 1802, on the eve of Lord Lake's Mahratta war, his chemical knowledge enabled him to render a signal service to the administration by making available a large quantity of gunpowder which damp had spoiled.
Having built the forts of Dig and Kumbher in 1730, he received in 1756 the title of raja, and subsequently joined the great Mahratta army with 30,000 troops.
But the misconduct of the Mahratta leader induced him to abandon the confederacy, just in time to escape the murderous defeat at Panipat.
The abir and aggir butis made at the Mahommedan city of Bijapur in the Mahratta country are celebrated all over western India.
The rich land round about the holy city of Pandharpur, sacred to Vithoba the national Mahratta form of (Krishna)- Vishnu, is wholly restricted to the cultivation of the tulsi plant.
The district contains several old hill forts, the scenes of many engagements during the Mahratta wars.
The other was the rise and rapid growth of the Mahratta power.
At the close of the long contest the Mogul power was weaker, the Mahratta stronger than at first.
On the occasion of a Mahommedan invasion in 1732, Chhatar Sal asked and obtained the assistance of the Mahratta Peshwa, whom he adopted as his son, giving him a third of his dominions.
The Mahratta power was, however, on the decline; the flight of the peshwa from his capital to Bassein before the British arms changed the aspect of affairs, and by the treaty concluded between the peshwa and the British government, the districts of Banda and Hamirpur were transferred to the latter.
In 1703 a Mussulman convert of the Gond tribe held the country, and in 1743 Raghoji Bhonsla, the Mahratta ruler of Berar, annexed it to his dominions.
Detachments of British troops were stationed at Multai, Betul and Shahpur to cut off the retreat of Apa Sahib, the Mahratta general, and a military force was quartered at Betul until June 1862.