On the collapse of the rebellion he fled to Turkey, adopted Mahommedanism, and under the name of Murad Pasha served as governor of Aleppo, at which place, at the risk of his life, he saved the Christian population from being massacred by the Moslems. Here he died on the 6th of September 1850.
"I had rather that Mahommedanism were permitted amongst us," His he avowed, "than that one of God's children should be persecuted."
Prayer in the latter sense is a characteristic feature of the higher religions, and we might even say that Christianity or Mahommedanism, ritually viewed, is in its inmost essence a service of prayer.
The Jews, less bitterly opposed to Mahommedanism than the Christians were, caught fire more rapidly, and in some cases served as an intermediate link or channel of communication.
The Tatars, Bashkirs and Kirghiz are Mahommedans; but the last-named have to a great extent maintained along with Mahommedanism their old Shamanism.
After the conquest a large part of the inhabitants embraced Mahommedanism, and thus secured to themselves the chief share in the administration of the island.
As they are now known to us, they have undergone a process of partial civilization, first at the hands of the Brahminical Indians, from whom they borrowed a religion, and to some extent literature and an alphabet, and subsequently from intercourse with the Arabs, which has led to the adoption of Mahommedanism by most of them.
(c) Mahommedanism or Islam is perhaps the greatest transforming force which the world has seen.
It was left untouched by Mahommedanism, and for an unprecedentedly long period kept Europeans at bay without wasting its strength in hostilities.
With the rise of Mahommedanism occurred a sudden effervescence of the Arabs, who during some centuries threatened to impose not only their political authority but their civilization and new religion on the whole known world.
Mahommedanism was introduced at a period which, according to the system adopted for the dating of the annals, must be placed either in the 1 2 th or the 14th century.
It has been erroneously stated that the Fula imposed Mahommedanism on the Hausa states.
But the annals of Kano distinctly record the introduction and describe the development of Mahommedanism at an early period of local history.
They protected Europe from the new revival of Mahommedanism under the Turks; they gave it a time of rest in which the Western civilization of the middle ages developed.
As early as 970 the recovery of the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms. At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard.
Thousands had joined this new Crusade, which should deal the final blow to Mahommedanism: among the rest came the first of the troubadours, William IX., Count of Poitiers, to gather copy for his muse, and even some, like Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, who had joined the First Crusade, but had failed to reach Jerusalem.
From this point of vantage he began depredations on the Red Sea (1182), building a fleet, and seeking to attack Medina and Mecca - a policy which may be interpreted either as mere buccaneering, or as a calculated attempt to deal a blow at Mahommedanism in its very centre.
The alliance with the Mongols remained, from the first to the last, something of a chimera; and the last visionary hope vanished when the Mongols finally embraced Mahommedanism, as, by the end of the 14th century, they had almost universally done.
Mahommedanism undoubtedly spread to the Malays of the peninsula from Sumatra, but their conversion was slow and gradual, and may even now in some respects be regarded as imperfect.
Prior to their conversion to Mahommedanism the Malays were subjected to a considerable Hindu influence, which reached them by means of the traders who visited the archipelago from India.
For the rest, a substratum of superstitious beliefs, which survives from the days when the Malays professed only their natural religion, is to be found firmly rooted in the minds of the people, and the influence of Mahommedanism, which regards such things with horror, has been powerless to eradicate this.
Mahommedanism prevails throughout the island, except among the mountain tribes.
For Mahommedanism cannot be maintained, and I should be sorry to see this country fighting for the maintenance of Mahommedanism..
The peace of Karlowitz marks the term of the Magyar's secular struggle with Mahommedanism and finally reunited her long-separated provinces beneath a common sceptre.
It has been edited, with an English translation (1907) by (Rev.) Lonsdale and Laura Ragg, who hold that it was the work of a Christian renegade to Mahommedanism about the 13th-16th century.
A few villages are nominally Christian, and the Malays have introduced Mahommedanism, but most of the natives have no religion.
In 1535, there were still found in the city native Christians, the last remnants of the mountains, who had never been latinized and never really christianized, accepted Islam without difficulty, but showed their stubborn nationality, not only in the character of their Mahommedanism, which has always been Berber mixed up with the worship of living as well as dead saints (marabouts) and other peculiarities, but also in political movements.
The definiteness and persistence of this creed, which of course is the strength also of Mahommedanism, presents a contrast to the fluid character of the statements in the Vedas, and to the chaos of conflicting opinions of philosophers among the Greeks and Romans.
Want of power, or other obstacles, delayed the final extinction of tolerated Mahommedanism in all parts of Spain, but by 1525 it was everywhere suppressed.
Cases of crypto-Mahommedanism continued to come before the Inquisition till the 18th century.
As a student he distinguished himself in philosophy and in philology, and at the close of his course wrote on the relations of Judaism and Mahommedanism a prize essay which was afterwards published in 1833 under the title Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judentum aufgenommen?
Mahommedanism has taken over and further elaborated the Jewish and Christian ideas as to angels.
At this period a civilization, largely of Hindu origin, had flourished and decayed in Java, where, as in all the more important islands, Mahommedanism had afterwards become the dominant creed.
Ghazali (q.v.) in his Tahafot al-Filasifa (" The Collapse of the Philosophers ") is the advocate of complete philosophical scepticism in the interests of orthodox Mahommedanism - an orthodoxy which passed, however, in his own case into a species of mysticism.
Boghra Khan, the most celebrated prince of this line, was converted to Mahommedanism late in the 10th century and the Uighur kingdom lasted until 1120 but was distracted by complicated dynastic struggles.
His fervent faith in the doctrines of Islam was unquestioned, and his ultimate failure was due in considerable measure to the refusal of the Kabyles, Berber mountain tribes whose Mahommedanism is somewhat loosely held, to make common cause with the Arabs against the French.
The Kabyles, Mzabites, Tuareg, Arabs and Moors all profess Mahommedanism, though it is only among the Arabs that its tenets are held in any purity.
" It was reserved for Proclus," says Zeller, " to bring the Neoplatonic philosophy to its formal conclusion by the rigorous consistency of his dialectic, and, keeping in view all the modifications which it had undergone in the course of two centuries, to give it that form in which it was transferred to Christianity and Mahommedanism in the middle ages."
In 1742 Shemakha was taken and destroyed by Nadir Shah of Persia, who, to punish the inhabitants for their creed (Sunnite Mahommedanism), built a new town under the same name about 16 m.
After the rise of Mahommedanism many Arabs settled on the coast and mixed with the heathen Beja, whose rule of kinship and succession in the female line helped to give the children of mixed marriages a leading position (Makrizi, Khitat, i.
Mahommedanism indeed is active, and is the chief opponent of Christianity to-day, but the character of its teaching is too exact a reflection of the race, time, place and climate in which it arose to admit of its becoming universal.
Up to this time the chief results were that (r) Christianity had gained a footing, (2) it had continued the monotheistic modification of Indian thought begun by Mahommedanism, and (3) the futility of sporadic and fanatical proselytism had been shown.
Comparatively few converts have been made from Mahommedanism to Christianity, and these have been chiefly among the learned.
They profess Mahommedanism but are practically savages.
In the 13th century Mahommedanism began to make itself felt, and in course of time took a firm hold upon some of the most important states.
They had been converted to Mahommedanism in the early times of the Arab conquest, but their knowledge of Islam did not go much beyond the formula of the creed - "there is no god but God, and Mahomet is the apostle of God," - and they were ignorant of the law.
The most important race in Northern Nigeria is that of the Hausa (q.v.), among whom the superior classes adopted Mahommedanism in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Thus the later movements of thought in Islam never touch on the great questions that exercised Mahommedanism in its first centuries, e.g.
Mahommedanism has no priest hood standing between God and the congregation, but Koran and Sunna are full of minute rules for the details of private and civil life, the knowledge of which is necessarily in the hands of a class of professed theologians.
After three or four years, fortified with the certificates of his various professors, he seeks a place in a law-court or as a teacher, preacher, cadi, or mufti of a village or minor town, or else one of the innumerable posts of confidence for which the complicated ceremonial of Mahommedanism demands a theologian, and which are generally paid out of pious foundations.
At the assembly of princes at Milan; and he wrote his Crebratio Alcorani, a treatise against Mahommedanism, in support of the expedition against the Turks proposed at that assembly.
Although the national God was at once a transcendent ruler of the universe and also near at hand to man, the unconscious religious feeling found an outlet, not only in the splendid worship at Jerusalem, but in the more immediate intercessors, divine agencies, and the like; and when Judaism left its native soil the local supernatural beings revived - as characteristically as when the old placenames threw off their Greek dress - and they still survive, under a veneer of Mahommedanism, as the modern representatives of the Baals of the distant past.'
The Arab has built his social structure on the Koran, which inculcates absolutism, aristocracy, theocracy; the Berber, despite his nominal Mahommedanism, is a democrat, with his Jemda or " Witangemot " and his Kanum or unwritten code, the Magna Carta of the individual's liberty as opposed to the community's good.
For the retention of older cults under a new name, Mahommedanism supplies several examples, as when a forest-serpent of India receives a Mahommedan name (Oldham 128).
Higher in rank came various mediating forms, like Wisdom, Memra (the Word) or Shekinah (the Presence), more or less definitely personalized. :Mahommedanism still recognizes innumerable jinn peopling the solitudes of the desert, and over the grave of the deceased saint a little mosque is built, and prayers are offered and miracles performed.
Even Mahommedanism felt the spell of the same modes of thought.
The outcome of his teaching was a division of Mahommedanism vitally momentous to the world of Islam.
Shah Rukh held his position, such as it was, rather under Al~mad Lady Sheil says (1849); I saw a few of these unhappy captives who all had to embrace Mahommedanism, and many of whom had risen to the highest stations, just as the Circassian slaves in Constantinople.
Vijayanagar gave the militant Mahommedanism of Northern India no, opportunity for a combined attack on the Portuguese settlements.
Mahommedanism was partly adopted by the upper classes in the 18th century, if not earlier, and the son of a Mahommedan native ruler, educated at Sokoto, accepted the flag of Dan Fodio and conquered the country for the Fula.
Kmba, Kaaba, or Kaabeh, the sacred shrine of Mahommedanism, containing the "black stone," in the middle of the great mosque at Mecca.
His idealistic scheme of history, which makes religion the keynote of progress, and describes the function of each - Judaism to typify duty, Confucianism order, Mahommedanism justice, Buddhism patience, and Christianity love - does not account for the facts of the history enacted by the devotees.