The chief timber of indigenous growth is padouk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides) used for buildings, boats, furniture, fine joinery and all purposes to which teak, mahogany, hickory, oak and ash are applied.
On all but the lowest ranges, the trees rarely reaching a height of over 15 ft.; and the stunted mountain mahogany on the principal ranges at an altitude of 6800 ft.
Andros Island and the Abaco Islands may be specially noted for their profusion of large timber, including mahogany, mastic, lignum vitae, iron and bullet woods, and many others.
The cinchona has recently been introduced with complete success; and the mahogany of America reaches a large size, and gives promise of being grown for use as timber.
A spinning wheel stood in one corner, partially covered by a dusty sheet, and beside it, a mahogany rocker with a cobbler seat.
Among the peculiar species are the red bay or" Florida Mahogany," satinwood and cachibou, and the Florida yew and savin, both almost extinct.
Forest resources have been but slightly touched (more so since the end of Spanish rule) except mahogany, which goes to the United States, and cedar, which is used to box the tobacco products of the island, much going also to the United States.
Thenceforth Seto became the headquarters of the manufacture of cha-no-yu utensils, and many of the tiny pieces turned out there deserve high admiration, their technique being perfect, and their mahogany, russet-brown, amber and buff glazes showing wonderful lustre and richness.
The exports are mahogany, rosewood, cedar, logwood and other cabinet-woods and dye-woods, with cocoanuts, sugar, sarsaparilla, tortoiseshell, deerskins, turtles and fruit, especially bananas.
From the forests are obtained rubber, copal, bark, various kinds of fibre, and timber (teak, mahogany, &c.).
The forests are rich in palm-tree products, rubber and mahogany, which constitute the chief articles of export.
Among the more important and conspicuous trees of these tropical forests are mahogany, rosewood, Spanish cedar (Cedrela), cassias, ceibas (Bombax), rubber (Castilloa), palms of many species including the oil-producing Attalea of Manzanillo and Acrocomia of Acapulco, guayacan (Guaiacum), logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum), brazilwood (H.
The natural and forest products of Mexico include the agave and yucca (ixtle) fibres already mentioned; the " ceibon " fibre derived from the silk-cotton tree (Bombax pentandria); rubber and vanilla in addition to the cultivated products; palm oil; castor beans; ginger; chicle, the gum extracted from the " chico-zapote " tree (Achras sapota); logwood and other dye-woods; mahogany, rosewood, ebony, cedar and other valuable woods; " cascalote " or divi-divi; jalap root (Ipomaea); sarsaparilla (Smilax); nuts and fruits.
Besides rubber, it yields many valuable dye-woods and cabinet-woods, such as cedar, mahogany and logwood.
The koa (Acacia koa), from the wood of which the natives used to make the bodies of their canoes, and the only tree of the islands that furnishes much valuable lumber (a hard cabinet wood marketed as " Hawaiian mahogany "), forms extensive forests on Hawaii and Maui between elevations of 2000 and 4000 ft.
Guinea grass grows abundantly on the hillsides, affording excellent pasturage; the forests, though few, include the mahogany and other useful trees.
Where the skins are heavily dyed it is comparatively easy to see the difference between a natural and a dyed colour, as the underwool and top hair become almost alike and the leather is also dark, whereas in natural skins the base of the underwool is much paler than the top, or of a different colour, and the leather is white unless finished in a pale reddish tone as is sometimes the case when mahogany sawdust is used in the final cleaning.
Rubber vines, mahogany, ebony and many valuable timber trees are found in the forest zone.
Mahogany cement, for filling up cracks in wood, consists of 4 parts of beeswax, i of Indian red and yellowochre to give colour.
Mahogany (Swietenia mahogan y) is a native of the West Indies and Central America, the best-known varieties being Cuban or Spanish and Honduras.
The colour of mahogany is reddish brown, and in the Cuban wood the pores are often filled with a white chalky substance which is usually absent in the Honduras variety; the latter, however, may be obtained in larger sizes, and is straighter in the grain and easier to work.
Spanish mahogany weighs about 56 lb to the cubic ft., and the Honduras variety about 36 lb.
The following is a list of the best timbers for different situations: for general construction, spruce and pine of the different varieties; for heavy constructions, pitch pine, oak (preferably of English growth), teak, jarrah; for constructions immersed in water, Baltic pine, elm, oak, teak, jarrah; for very dry situations, spruce, pines, mahogany, teak, birch, sycamore.
Aipi), peanuts, pineapple, guava, chirimoya (Anona cherimolia), pawpaw (Carica papaya), ipecacuanha (Cephaelis), sarsaparilla, vanilla, false jalap (Mirabilis jalapa), copaiba, tolu (Myroxylon toluiferum), rubber-producing trees, dyewoods, cotton and a great number of beautiful hardwoods, such as jacaranda, mahogany, rosewood, quebracho, colo, cedar, walnut, &c. Among the fruits many of the most common are exotics, as the orange, lemon, lime, fig, date, grape, &c., while others, as the banana, caju or cashew (Anacardium occidentale) and aguacate avocado or alligator pear, have a disputed origin.
Blending with these at their upper limit and continuing above them are clumps of mountain mahogany, which sometimes attains a height of 20 or 30 ft.
Above this belt of mahogany, pines and firs are sometimes found.
There are valuable vegetable dye-stuffs, medicinal plants (especially sarsaparilla, copaiba and ipecacuanha), cabinet and building timber (mahogany, &c.), india-rubber, tropical fruits (especially bananas), and various palms; fish are economically important - the name Panama is said to have meant in an Indian dialect " rich in fish " - and on the Pacific coast, oysters and pearl " oysters " (Meleagrina californica) - the headquarters of the pearl fishery is the city of San Miguel on the largest of the Pearl Islands, and Coiba Island.
The coast is low, intersected by creeks, and forms one huge mangrove swamp; on the rising ground inland are dense forests in which the cotton and mahogany trees are conspicuous.
Coffee, gold, mahogany, rubber and cattle are largely exported; and more than half the foreign trade of Nicaragua passes through this port, which has completely superseded the roadstead of Realejo, now partly filled with sandbanks, but from 1550 to 1850 the principal seaport of the country.
Excepting near the rocky coast, the islands are fruitful, mahogany and other valuable timbers with some dye wood are grown, and large quantities of coco-nuts are produced by the two smaller islands.
Mahogany and rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus) trees are found, though not in large numbers, and the rubber-vine and oil-palm are also comparatively scarce.
In southern Kordofan and in the higher parts of the Bahr-el-Ghazal the silag and ebony are also common, as well as African mahogany (homraya, Khaya senegalensis) and other timber trees.
The wood of the sunt tree is used largely for boatbuilding and for fuel, and the mahogany tree yields excellent timber.
The bombax or silk-cotton tree attains gigantic proportions in the forests, which are the home of the indiarubber-producing plants and of many valuable kinds of timber trees, such as odum (Chlorophora excelsa), ebony, mahogany (Khaya senegalensis), African teak or oak (Oldfieldia africana) and camwood (Baphia nitida).
Nobilis) and spruce; and among the broad-leaved varieties the oak, ash, maple, mahoganybirch or mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolia), aspen, cottonwood and balsam are the most common.
The forests are never made up wholly of palms, but are composed of trees of widely different characters, including many common to the Amazon region, together with others found in Central American forests, such as mahogany and "vera" or lignum vitae (Zygophyllum arboreum).
It exports cedar, mahogany, tobacco, sugar, tortoise-shell,.
There are also timber trees such as mahogany, ebony, teak, lignum vitae, African cedars and planes, while oil, borassus and bamboo palms are abundant.
- The name "Costa Rica," meaning "rich coast," is well deserved; for, owing to the combination of ample sunshine and moisture with a wonderfully fertile soil, almost any kind of fruit or flower can be successfully cultivated; while the vast tracts of virgin forest, which remain along the Atlantic slopes, contain an abundance of cedar, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and ebony, with fustic and other precious dye-woods.
Watery solution of iodine imparts to it a deep mahogany-brown colour; iodine and sulphuric acid occasionally, but not always, an azure-blue, methylviolet, a brilliant rose-pink and methyl-green gives a reaction very much like that of methyl-violet, but not so vivid.
Of these, ebonies, mahogany (for the bird's-eye variety such enormous prices are paid as $1200 to $1800 per thousand board-feet), culla (or cuya, Bumelia retusa), cocullo (cocuyo, Bumelia nigra), ocuje (Callophyllum viticifolia, Ornitrophis occidentalis, 0.