He also carried out many experiments in magneto-optics, and succeeded in showing, what Faraday had failed to detect, the rotation under the influence of magnetic force of the plane of polarization in certain gases and vapours.
The magneto system itself is dying out.
With the advent of large magneto-electric machines the era of electrotechnics was fairly entered, and this period, which may be said to terminate about 1867 to 1869, was consummated by the theoretical work of Clerk Maxwell.
The currents were produced by a magneto-electric machine resembling that of Clarke.
In some cases when a magneto-generator is employed for calling purposes the coil of the machine is automatically cut out of circuit when it is not in action, and is brought into circuit when the handle is turned by the operation of a centrifugal or other arrangement.
When a subscriber called (by turning the handle of his magneto- 'generator), the shutter of the annunciator associated with his line dropped.
Though many types of manually operated switchboards have been brought into use, differing from each other in respect of circuit and working arrangements, yet each of them may be placed in one or other of three main classes according as the system of working is magneto, call-wire, or common battery.
The fundamental principle of the magneto system has been described in connexion with the " Standard board."
There are still many magneto exchanges in existence, but when new exchanges are erected only the very smallest are equipped for magneto working, that system having succumbed to the common battery one in the case of all equipments of moderate and large dimensions.
This advance did not merely remove the primary batteries from the subscribers' stations; it removed also the magneto-generator, and at the same time it modified considerably the conditions governing the exchange operating.
Among the most splendid of his achievements was the discovery of the phenomena and laws of magneto-electric induction, the subject of two papers communicated to the Royal Society in 1831 and 1832.
Modern theory accepts the deduction, but ascribes the momentum to the revolving ions in the molecules of matter traversed by the light; for the magneto-optic effect is present only in material media.
Of these machines, originally called magneto-electric machines, one of the first was devised in 1832 by H.
Clarke, and many others in the development of the above-described magneto-electric machine.
Holmes had made a magneto machine with multiple permanent magnets which was installed in 1862 in Dungeness lighthouse.
This subject is treated in the article Magneto-Optics, to which the reader is also referred for John Kerr's discovery of the effect on polarization produced by reflection from a magnetic pole, and for the action of a magnetic field on the radiation of a source - the "Zeeman effect."
The 1st and 2nd concern the discovery of magneto-electric induction already mentioned.