The attempt was not completely successful; but the government was now equally divided between the two estates by the creation of a supreme magistracy of twenty-four citizens - twelve nobles and twelve popolani.
He was removed from the magistracy and returned to England in 1652.
14 She was nominally assisted by the members of the any interference on the part of the magistracy to wreak their will upon its spendid and priceless contents.
Italy has courts of cassation at Rome, Naples, Palermo, Ttirin, Florence, 20 appeal court districts, I62 tribunal districts and 1535 mandamenti, each with its own magistracy (pretura).
He received his classical education in Rouen, entered the magistracy and became judge at Montivilliers, near Havre.
He was designed for the magistracy of his province; and in 1771, when for a time the provincial parlement was suppressed, with the others, by the chancellor Maupeou, he refused to sit in the royal tribunal substituted for it.
In 1199 the institution of a foreign podestd (a form of government which became permanent in 1212) gave a severe blow to the consular magistracy, which was soon extinguished; and in 1233 the people again rose against the nobles in the hope of ousting them entirely from office.
Exasperated by the tyranny of the Salimbeni and other patrician families allied to the Ghibellines, it decreed in 127 7 the exclusion of all nobles from the supreme magistracy (consisting since 1270 of thirty-six instead of twenty-four members), and insisted that this council should be formed solely of Guelf traders and men of the middle class.
This constitution was confirmed in 1280 by the reduction of the supreme magistracy to fifteen members, all of the humbler classes, and was definitively sanctioned in 1285 (and 1287) by the institution of the magistracy of nine.
In Siena gave fresh courage to the malcontents, who, backed by the imperial authority, overthrew the government of the nine and substituted a magistracy of twelve drawn from the lowest class.
Then, however, moved by fear of the emperor, who had passed through Siena two months before on his way to Rome, and who was about to halt there on his return, it tried to conciliate its foes by creating a fresh council of 150 riformatori, who replaced the twelve defenders by a new supreme magistracy of fifteen, consisting of eight popolani, four dodicini, and three noveschi, entitled respectively "people of the greater number," "people of the middle number," and "people of the less number."
The fifteen were replaced by a new supreme magistracy of ten priors, chosen in the following proportions - four of the twelve, four of the nine, and two of the people proper, or people of the greater number, but to the exclusion of all who had shared in the government or sat in council under the riformatori.
During the interval the supreme magistracy had assumed a more popular form.
During those critical times the government of the state was strengthened by a new executive magistracy called the balia, which from 1455 began to act independently of the priors or consistory.
But henceforward the balia had supreme jurisdiction in all affairs of the state, although always, down to the fall of the republic, nominally preserving the character of a magistracy extraordinary.
The city then placed itself under the protection of the emperor .Charles V., created a magistracy of "ten conservators of the liberties of the state" (December 1524), united the different monti in one named the "monte of the reigning nobles," and, rejoicing to be rid of the last of the Petrucci, dated their public books, ab instaurata libertate year I., II., and so on.
The government was now reconstituted under the protection of the French agents; the balia was abolished, its very name having been rendered odious by the tyranny of Spain, and was replaced by a similar magistracy styled capitani del popolo e reggimento.
But a little before Tertullian, Irenaeus, though he does not use the word ordo, anticipates in some measure Tertullian's abstract term, for he recognizes a magisterii locus, " a place of magistracy " or " presidency " in the church.
For a considerable time Barasat town was the headquarters of a joint magistracy, known as the "Barasat District," but in 1861, on a readjustment of boundaries Barasat district was abolished by order of government, and was converted into a subdivision of the Twenty-four Parganas.
His greatest feat was the impassioned speech by which, on October 8th, he induced the burgesses to accede to the proposal of the magistracy of Copenhagen to offer Frederick III.
A railway, completed in 1904, which begins at Durban and crosses into Zululand by a bridge over the Tugela near the Lower Drift, runs along the coast belt over nearly level country to the St Lucia coal-fields in Hlabisa magistracy-167 m.
The Ingwavu'ma magistracy, like Tongaland, formed no part of the dominions of the Zulu kings, but was ruled by independent chiefs until its annexation by Great Britain in 1895.
With the exception of the townships and a district of Emtonjaneni magistracy known as " Proviso B," 1 mainly occupied by Boer farmers, all the land was vested in the crown and very little has been parted with to Europeans.
The magistracy had been acquiring more and more the character of an oligarchy; all power was practically in the hands of a few closely-related families; and the gravest peculation and malversation took place without hindrance.
The magistracy for the district is situated 5 m.
Oaths and the taking of life were absolutely forbidden; hence the magistracy and the army were for the Mennonite unlawful callings; but magistrates were to be obeyed in all things not prohibited by Scripture.
There is a fine statue of the great jarl in the Riddarholm church at Stockholm, erected by Fogelberg at the expense of the Stockholm magistracy in 1884.
26-37) the city prefecture, hitherto an exceptional and temporary office, became a regular and permanent magistracy; in all subsequent reigns the praefect held office even during the presence of the emperor in Rome.
Finally, in 1571, as he tells us in an inscription still extant, he retired to Montaigne to take up his abode there, having given up his magistracy the year before.
Finally, the people elected to every magistracy with the exception of the occasional offices of Dictator and Interrex.
By Giving A Greater Or Less Number Of Days To The Intercalary Month, The Pontiffs Were Enabled To Prolong The Term Of A Magistracy Or Hasten The Annual Elections; And So Little Care Had Been Taken To Regulate The Year, That, At The Time Of Julius Caesar, The Civil Equinox Differed From The Astronomical By Three Months, So That The Winter Months Were Carried Back Into Autumn And The Autumnal Into Summer.
The university (Universidad Literaria), which was originally founded in 1430 by the magistracy of the city, and received a bull of confirmation from Pope Nicholas V.
Granted the magistracy a licence to build a mole; and in 1474 the Moll de Santa Creu was officially begun.
It is difficult, indeed, to blame the burghers for resisting the dubious reforming efforts of Hermann of Wied, archbishop from 1515 to 1546, inspired mainly by secular ambitions; but the expulsion of the Jews in 1414, and still more the exclusion, under Jesuit influence, of Protestants from the right to acquire citizenship, and from the magistracy, dealt severe blows at the prosperity of the place.
But the best evidence of Hegel's attention to contemporary politics is two unpublished essays - one of them written in 1798, " On the Internal Condition of Wurttemberg in Recent Times, particularly on the Defects in the Magistracy," the other a criticism on the constitution of Germany, written, probably, not long after the peace of Luneville (1801).
Two conceptions lay at the basis - the thought of the spiritual priesthood of all believers and the belief that the state was a divine ordinance, that the magistracy might represent the whole body of believers and that discipline and administration might be exercised through courts constituted somewhat like the consistorial courts of the medieval bishops, their members being appointed by the magistracy.
Simultaneously with its incorporation by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, who presented the city with its own mint toll and market, there appears a magistracy of six, chosen probably by the Vogt from the Schtifen (scabini, probi homines).
The magistracy was for two centuries almost exclusively in the hands of the merchant aristocracy, who formed the companies of traders or "nations," such as the Bergen-fahrer, Novgorodfahrer, Riga fahrer and Stockholm-fahrer.
The poet was the eldest son of another Francois de Malherbe, conseiller du roi in the magistracy of Caen.
He came of a family of good standing, long settled at Velitrae (Velletri), but his father was the first of the family to obtain a curule magistracy at Rome and senatorial dignity.
At home it was understood that he would year by year be elected consul, and enjoy the powers and pre-eminence attached to the chief magistracy of the Roman state.
They further declare (particularly in order that they may avoid the charge of being Anabaptists) that "a civil magistracy is an ordinance of God," which they are bound to obey.
And in the same generation Heraclitus, probably a descendant of Codrus, quitted his hereditary magistracy in order to devote himself to philosophy, in which his name became almost as great as that of any Greek.
Backed by these forces, as well as by the king and the army, Franco effected some useful reforms. But his opponents included not only the Republicans, the professional politicians and those officials who feared inquiry, but also the magistracy, the district and municipal councils, and the large body of citizens who still believed in parliamentary government.
The chief magistracy was the strategia (tenable every second year), which combined with an unrestricted command in the field a large measure of civil authority.
As early as the first half of the 13th century the young city obtained the right of electing its own magistracy, and enlarged the walls erected during Albert's time.
Their programme for home affairs involved the amelioration of the position of the peasantry and artisan classes, whose progress they considered had been overlooked, the irremovability of the magistracy, and a revision of the communal law in the sense of decentralization.
The company, to control the emigrants, established a magistracy at Swellendam in 1745 and another at Graaff Reinet in 1786.
He entered the magistracy and became procureur general at Grenoble, but resigned this office on the restoration of the Bourbons.
Francis I., desirous to continue the suppression of the Protestants but anxious, because of his strife with Charles V., not to break with the Protestant princes of Germany, instructed his ambassador to assure these princes that it was only against Anabaptists, and other parties who called in question all civil magistracy, that his severities were exercised.
The office might be combined with a magistracy, and, though its powers were declaratory rather than executive, it may fairly be described as quasi-magisterial.
Claudius, who was a native of Lyons, extended the right of Roman citizenship to many of his fellow-townsmen, gave them access to the magistracy and to the senate, and supplemented the annexation of Gaul by that of Britain.
Rome was too tolerant to impose her own institutions by force; it was the conquered peoples who collectively and individually solicited as a favor the right ~f adopting the municipal system, the magistracy, the sacerdotal and aristocratic social system of their conquerors.
The rich bourgeoisie began more achieve- and more to monopolize the magistracy; and though the country-people were somewhat relieved from the burden which had been crushing them, the working-classes remained impoverished, owing to the increase of prices which followed at a distance the rise of wages.
From 1743 to 1774 came the personal rule of Louis XV., when all the different powers were in conflictthe bishops and parlement quarrelling, the government fighting against the clergy and the magistracy, and public opinion in declared opposition to the state.
Next year he persuaded the magistracy to issue an order forbidding Regius to travel beyond the received doctrine.