His De Maria Magdalena et triduo Christi disceptatio (1517) provoked violent controversy and was condemned by the Sorbonne (1521).
Mozans, Up the Orinico and down the Magdalena (New York, 1910); F.
He did not, however, remain long in retirement, but in September 1812, hearing of important movements in New Granada, repaired to Cartagena, where he received a commission to operate against the Spanish troops on the Magdalena river.
The Spaniards had opened a canal (" El Dique ") through some marshes and lagoons into a small western outlet of the Magdalena, which gave access to that river at Calamar, about 81 m.
Of the mouth of the Magdalena river.
West of the coast on the 29th parallel, which is fertile and stocked with cattle; Cerros, off Viscaino Bay, and Santa Margarita, which partly shelters Magdalena Bay, on the Pacific side; and Angel de la Guarda, Tiburon, San Marcos, Carmen, Monserrate, Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz, San Jose, Espiritu Santo and Cerralvo in the Gulf.
He now fled to Russia, where he was interned at Kaluga, while at home he was condemned to confiscation and death as a traitor, and his unjustly accused mistress Magdalena Rudenschold was publicly whipped to gratify an old grudge of the regent's.
Wide, which is considered one of the most beautiful inland sheets of water in Mexico, the Sayula and the Magdalena, noted for their abundance of fish.
The former, which rises in the Sierra de Merida, which overlooks the Lake of Maracaibo, has 16 large affluents; the latter has its sources near the Colombian city of Pamplona, and they are only separated from the basin of the river Magdalena by the "Oriental" Andean range.
Dr Twining, in the British Association Reports for 18 45, p. 79, cites some instances described by Humboldt, who says that the copper-coloured natives of the high plain of Bogoto, and at a lower level on the Magdalena river, were generally free from goitre.
BARRANQUILLA, a city and port of Colombia, South America, capital of a province of the same name in the department of Atlantico, on the left bank of the Magdalena river about 7 m.
Owing to a dangerous bar at the mouth of the Magdalena the trade of the extensive territory tributary to that river, which is about 60 ho of that of the entire country, must pass in great part through Barranquilla and its seaport, making it the principal commercial centre of the republic. Savanilla was used as a seaport until about 1890, when shoals caused by drifting sands compelled a removal to Puerto Colombia, a short distance westward, where a steel pier, 4000 ft.
The navigation of the Magdalena is carried on by means of lightdraught steamboats which ascend to Yeguas, 14 m.
The water-supply is drawn from the Magdalena, and the city is provided with telephone, electric light and tram services.
Ferdinand was married in 1729 to Maria Magdalena Barbara,.
Protestantism was introduced in 1568, and Magdalena, the last Roman Catholic abbess, died in 1589; but Protestant abbesses were appointed to the foundation, and continued to enjoy their imperial privileges till 1803, when Gandersheim was incorporated with Brunswick.
By the departments of Magdalena and Santander, S.
Other important towns are Barranquilla and Mompox (8000), on the Magdalena river, and Corozal (9000) and Lorica (10,596 in 1902), near the western coast.
And Queen Sophia Magdalena, was born at Stockholm on the 1st of November 1778.
A railway from Puerto Berrio, on the Magdalena, was begun many years before the end of the 19th century, but political and financial difficulties interposed and work was suspended when only 43 m.
Of Medellin, on the old trade route across the Cordillera between Honda, on the Magdalena, and the Cauca Valley.
Most of the zinc comes from Socorro county, where the mines of the Magdalena District in 1908 yielded 93% of the entire product.
Wide, which appear to be a submerged part of the great central valley of Chile, and farther south by the narrower Moraleda channel, which terminates southward in a confusing network of passages between the mainland and the islands of the Chonos group. One of the narrow parts of the Chilean mainland is to be found opposite the upper islands of this group, where the accidental juxtaposition of Magdalena island, which indents the continent over half a degree at this point, and the basin of Lake Fontana, which gives the Argentine boundary a sharp wedge-shaped projection westward, narrows the distance between the two to about 26 m.
The Frias is wholly a Chilean river, draining an extensive Andean region between the 44th and 45th parallels and discharging into the Puyuguapi channel, which separates Magdalena island from the mainland.
On the 4th of November 1766, Gustavus married Sophia Magdalena, daughter of Frederick V.
Of the Magdalena river, and E.
The greater part of its territory lies between the Magdalena and Cauca rivers and includes the northern end of the Central Cordillera.
Other important towns are Manizales (18,000) in the extreme south, the commercial centre of a rich gold and grazing region; Antioquia, the old capital, on the Cauca; and Puerto Berri() on the Magdalena, from which a railway has been started to the capital.
The coast has two or three good sheltered bays, that of La Paz on the Gulf side and of Magdalena on the Pacific side being best known.
Coast in the vicinity of Magdalena Bay.
A small part of the northern Colombia, on the lower courses of the Atrato and Magdalena, extending across the country from the Eastern to the Western Cordilleras with a varying width of 100 to 150 m., not including the lower river basins which penetrate much farther inland, also consists of low, alluvial plains, partly covered with swamps and intricate watercourses, densely overgrown with vegetation, but in places admirably adapted to different kinds of tropical agriculture.
The other part of the republic, which may be roughly estimated at two-fifths of its total area, consists of an extremely rugged mountainous country, traversed from south to north by the parallel river valleys of the Magdalena, Cauca and Atrato.
This range runs in a north-north-east direction and separates the valleys of the Magdalena and Cauca, terminating in some low hills south-west of El Banco, a small town on the lower Magdalena.
It is worthy of note that the principal rivers of these three classes - the Patia, Cauca, Magdalena, Caqueta and Putumayo - all have their sources on the high plateaus of southern Colombia and within a comparatively limited area.
The rivers belonging to the Caribbean system, all of which flow in a northerly direction, are the Atrato, Bacuba, Sinu, Magdalena and Zulia.
The most important rivers of Colombia, however, are the Magdalena and its principal tributary, the Cauca.
Above sea-level - the Magdalena in the Laguna del Buey (Ox Lake) on the Las Papas plateau, and the Cauca a short distance westward in the Laguna de Santiago on the Paramo de Guanacas - and flow northward in parallel courses with the great Central Cordillera, forming the waterparting between their drainage basins.
There are also many smaller streams flowing into the Magdalena from both sides of the valley.
In height; the Sogamoso passes through some of the richest districts of the republic; and the Cesar rises on the elevated slopes of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and flows southward across a low plain, in which are many lakes, to join the Magdalena where it bends westward to meet the Cauca.
The course of the Magdalena traverses nine degrees of latitude and is nearly moo m.
The Cauca differs much from the Magdalena, although its principal features are the same.
While, therefore, the Magdalena is navigable throughout the greater part of its course, or from Girardot to the coast, with an abrupt break of only 20 ft.
The valley of the Cauca is much narrower than that of the Magdalena, and between Cartago and Caceres the mountain ranges on both sides press down upon the river and confine it to a narrow canyon.
The Cauca unites with the Magdalena about 200 m.
The larger bays on this coast are Tumaco, Choco, Magdalena, Cabita, Coqui, Puerto Utria, Solano, Cupica and Octavia - some of them affording exceptionally safe and well-sheltered harbours.
Barranquilla, the principal port of the republic, is situated on the Magdalena, and its seaport, or landing-place, is Puerto Colombia at the inner end of Savanilla Bay, where a steel pier 4000 ft.
Of water alongside in 1907, but the silt brought down by the Magdalena is turned westward by the current along this coast, and may at any time fill the bay with dangerous shoals.
South-west of Barranquilla, which has a well-sheltered harbour protected by islands, and is connected with the Magdalena at Calamar by railway.
Between the mouth of the Magdalena and Santa Marta is the Cienaga de Santa Marta, a large marshy lagoon separated from the sea by a narrow sand spit, having its "boca" or outlet at its eastern side.
High temperatures prevail throughout the greater part of the Magdalena and Cauca valleys, because the mountain ranges which enclose them shut out the prevailing winds.
At Honda, on the Magdalena, 664 ft.
Another palm of much economic importance in Colombia is the "tagua" (Phytelephas macrocarpa),which grows abundantly in the valleys of the Magdalena, Atrato and Patia, and produces a large melon-shaped fruit in which are found the extremely hard, fine-grained nuts or seeds known in the commercial world as vegetable ivory.
According to Uricoechea there are at least twenty-seven native languages spoken in the western part of Colombia, fourteen in Tolima, thirteen in the region of the Caqueta, twelve in Panama, Bolivar and Magdalena, ten in Bogota and Cundinamarca, and thirty-four in the region of the Meta, while twelve had died out during the preceding century.
As late as the year 1900 Mr Albert Millican, while collecting orchids on the Opon river, a tributary of the Magdalena between Bogota and the Caribbean coast, was attacked by hostile Indians, and one of his companions was killed by a poisoned arrow.
The fifteen departments thus constituted, with the official estimates of 1905 regarding their areas and populations, are as follows: Of these departments the original eight are Antioquia, Bolivar, Boyaca (or Bojaca), Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Santander and Tolima.
The four intendencias are called Goajira, Meta, Alto Caqueta and Putumayo, and their aggregate area is estimated to be considerably more than half of the republic. The first covers the Goajira peninsula, which formerly belonged to the department of Magdalena, and the other three roughly correspond to the drainage basins of the three great rivers of the eastern plains whose names they bear.
The seven new departments are: Atlantico, taken from the northern extremity of Bolivar; Caldas, the southern part of Antioquia; Galan, the southern districts of Santander, including Charala, Socorro, Velez, and its capital San Gil; Huila, the southern part of Tolima, including the headwaters of the Magdalena and the districts about Neiva and La Plata; Narino, the southern part of Cauca extending from the eastern Cordillera to the Pacific coast; Quesada, a cluster of small, wellpopulated districts north of Bogota formerly belonging to Cundinamarca, including Zipaquira, Guatavita, Ubate and Pacho; and Tundama, the northern part of Boyaca lying on the frontier of Galan in the vicinity of its capital Santa Rosa.
Velez „ Among the smaller towns which deserve mention are Ambalema on the upper Magdalena, celebrated for its tobacco and cigars; Buenaventura (q.v.); Chaparral (9000), a market town of Tolima in the valley of the Saldana, with coal, iron and petroleum in its vicinity; Honda (6000), an important commercial centre at the head of navigation on the lower Magdalena; Girardot, a railway centre on the upper Magdalena; and Quibd6, a small river town at the head of navigation on the Atrato.
The one common outlet for these districts is the Magdalena river, whose navigable channel penetrates directly into the heart of the country.
From Bogota the Spaniards constructed two partially-paved highways, one leading down to the Magdalena in the vicinity of Honda, while the other passed down into the upper valley of the same river in a south-westerly direction, over which communication was maintained with Popayan and other settlements of southern Colombia and Ecuador.
Navigation on the lower Magdalena closely resembles that of the Mississippi, the same type of light-draft, flat-bottomed steamboat being used, and similar obstacles and dangers to navigation being encountered.
With three exceptions all the railway lines of the country lead to the Magdalena, and are dependent upon its steamship service for transportation to and from the coast.
The three lines which do not connect with the Magdalena are: (I) the Cucuta and Villamazar, 431 m., the latter being a port on the Zulia river near the Venezuelan frontier; (2) the Santa Marta railway, running inland from that port through the banana-producing districts, with 4 12 m.