9 are addressed to Maecenas, ii.
GAIUS MAECENAS (CILNIUS), Roman patron of letters, was probably born between 74 and 64 B.C., perhaps At Arretium.
The Gaius Maecenas mentioned in Cicero (Pro Cluentio, 56) as an influential member of the equestrian order in 91 B.C. may have been his grandfather, or even his father.
It was in 39 B.C. that Horace was introduced to Maecenas, who had before this received Varius and Virgil into his intimacy.
5) in 37, Maecenas and Cocceius Nerva are described as having been sent on an important mission, and they were successful in patching up, by the Treaty of Tarentum, a reconciliation between the two claimants for supreme power.
During the Sicilian war against Sextus Pompeius in 36, Maecenas was sent back to Rome, and was entrusted with supreme administrative control in the city and in Italy.
Suetonius (Augustus, 66) attributes the loss of the imperial favour to Maecenas having indiscreetly revealed to Terentia, his wife, the discovery of the conspiracy in which her brother Murena was implicated.
Maecenas died in 8 B.C., leaving the emperor heir to his wealth.
Opinions were much divided in ancient times as to the personal character of Maecenas; but the testimony as to his administrative and diplomatic ability was unanimous.
Maecenas endeavoured also to divert the less masculine genius of Propertius from harping continually on his love to themes of public interest.
The great charm of Maecenas in his relation to the men of genius who formed his circle was his simplicity, cordiality and sincerity.
Much of the wisdom of Maecenas probably lives in the Satires and Epistles of Horace.
Maecenas himself wrote in both prose and verse.
According to Dio Cassius, Maecenas was the inventor of a system of shorthand.
On the intellectual side the new movement found its champion and its Maecenas in Bishop Strassmayer, who for over 50 years devoted the surplus revenues of the wealthy see of Dya Kovo (Djakovo) to national purposes, and was mainly instrumental in founding at Zagreb the southern Slav Academy (1867), the first Croat university (1874) and a modern gallery and school of arts.
Three elegies were formerly attributed to Pedo by Scaliger; two on the death of Maecenas (In Obitum Maecenatis and De Verbis Maecenatis moribundi), and one addressed to Livia to console her for the death of her son Drusus (Consolatio ad Liviam de Morte Drusi or Epicedion Drusi, usually printed with Ovid's works); but it is now generally agreed that they are not by Pedo.
The new influence of patronage, which in other times has chilled the genial current of literature, become, in the person of Maecenas, the medium through which literature and the imperial policy were brought into union.
He had not only become reconciled to the new order of things, but was moved by his intimate friendship with Maecenas to aid in raising the world to sympathy with the imperial rule through the medium of his lyrical inspiration, as Virgil had through the glory of his epic art.
His influence on literature, which he encouraged after the manner of Maecenas, was considerable, and the group of literary persons whom he gathered round him - including Tibullus, Lygdamus and the poet Sulpicia - has been called "the Messalla circle."
Licinius, played an excellent Maecenas to his Augustus.
It is said that by the advice of Maecenas he resolved to attach Agrippa still more closely to him by making him his son-in-law.
Below it, on the cliffs above the Anio, is a large building round a colonnaded courtyard in opus reticulatum built over the Via Tiburtina (which passes under it in an arched passage), generally known as the villa of Maecenas, but shown by the discovery of inscriptions to have been in reality the meeting place of the Herculanei Augustales, connected probably with the temple.
Tibur was a favourite place of resort in Roman times, and both Augustus and Maecenas had villas here, and possibly Horace also.
The reputation of a greater Maecenas - ascribed to him by his eulogists - dwindles before a sober, critical contemplation, and his undeniable merits are by no means equal to those which fame has assigned to him.
C. Maecenas' was perhaps a native of Arretium.
His personal tastes, apart from his activities as a Maecenas, being economical, he endeavoured also to limit public expenditure, in a way which was not always a benefit to the country.
He now retired entirely into private life, and continued to play the Maecenas magnificently, frequently staying at his villa in Rome, the Villa Malta, and enjoying extraordinary vigour of mind and body up to the end of his days.
Finally in 8 B.C. he lost the comrade who next to Agrippa had been the most intimate friend and counsellor of his early manhood, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, the patron of Virgil and Horace.
He was the best friend of his innumerable poor relatives, and the Maecenas of all the struggling authors of his day.
In 1659 Fouquet, the Maecenas of the time, persuaded him to alter his resolve, and Odipe, a play which became a great favourite with Louis XIV., was the result.
Pareille, -was the indefatigable Maecenas of these innovators, and the incarnation of the Protestant spirit at its purest.
His imitator and superintendent, Fouquet, the Maecenas of the future Augustus, concealed this gambling policy beneath the lustre of the arts and the glamour of a literature remarkable for elevation of thought ana vigour of style, and further characterized by the proud though somewhat restricted freedom conceded to men like Corneille, Descartes and Pascal, but soon to disappear.
The Cilnii with whom Maecenas was connected were a noble Etruscan family.