In the spring of 334, Alexander crossed with an army of between 30,000 and 40,000 men, Macedonians, Illyrians, Thracians and the contingents of the Greek states, into Asia.
Macedonians, and at Prophthasia the commander of the Macedonian cavalry Philotas, the son of Parmenio, and certain others were arraigned before the army on the charge of conspiring against the king's life.
These opposed a national resistance to the Macedonians, the fires of which were fanned by the Brahmins, but still the strong arm of the western people prevailed.
The task of its internal reorganization now began to occupy him - changes, for instance, in the military system which tended to assimilate Macedonians and Orientals.
This policy did not allay the discontent of the Macedonian army, and when Alexander in the summer of 324 moved to the cooler region of Media, an actual mutiny of the Macedonians broke out on the way at Opis on the Tigris.
Alexander had planned to amalgamate the former rulers of the world with his Macedonians; but his death was followed by a Macedonian reaction.
Then came the invasion of the Persian empire by Alexander in 334 at the head of an army composed both of Macedonians and contingents from the allied Greek states.
The governors appointed by Alexander were, in the west of the empire, exclusively Macedonians; in the east, members of the Old Persian nobility were still among the satraps at Alexander's death, Atropates in Media, Phrataphernes in Parthia and Hyrcania, 1 For the events which brought this empire into being see Alexander The Great.
Alexander had at first trusted Persian grandees more freely in this capacity; in Babylonia, Bactria, Carmania, Susiana he had set Persian governors, till the ingrained Oriental tradition of misgovernment so declared itself that to the three latter provinces certainly Macedonians had been appointed before his death.
Alexander, who set out as king of the Macedonians and captaingeneral of the Hellenes, assumed after the death of Darius the.
To the Greeks and Macedonians such a regime was abhorrent, and the opposition roused by Alexander's attempt to introduce among them the practice of proskynesis (prostration before the royal presence), was bitter and effectual.
In closest contact with the king's person were the seven, or latterly eight, body-guards, awµaTocuAaKes, Macedonians of high rank, including Ptolemy and Lysimachus, the future kings of Egypt, and Thrace (Arr.
The ruder peoples which were neighbors to the Macedonians (Paeonians, Agrianes, Thracians) furnished contingents of light cavalry and javelineers (axovrtvrac).
A far more radical remodelling of the army was undertaken at Babylon in 323, by which the old phalanx system was to be given up for one in which the unit was to be composed of Macedonians with pikes and Asiatics with missile arms in combination - a change calculated to be momentous both from a military point of view in the coming wars, and from a political, in the close fusion of Europeans and Asiatics.
Armenia, never effectively conquered by the Macedonians, was left in the hands of native princes, tributary only when the Seleucid court was strong enough to compel.
The Macedonians of Alexander were not mistaken in seeing an essential transformation of their national monarchy when Alexander adopted the guise of an Oriental great 2.
There was no proskynesis (or certainly not in the case of Greeks and Macedonians), and the king did not wear an Oriental dress.
During the years immediately after Alexander the very Macedonians who had fought under Alexander were ranged against each other under the banners of the several chiefs.
As the soldiers of Alexander died off, fresh levies of home-born Macedonians could be raised only by the chief who held the motherland.
The other chiefs had to supply themselves with Macedonians from the numerous colonies planted before the break-up of the empire in Asia or Egypt, and from such Macedonians they continued for the next two centuries to form their phalanx.
As these phalangites are distinguished both from the Greek mercenaries and the native Egyptian levies, it looks (although such a fact would be staggering) as if more Macedonians could be raised for military service in Egypt than in Macedonia itself (but see Beloch, p. 353).
Had 10,000 men drawn from the provinces, armed and drilled as Macedonians, and another corps of Iranians numbering 5000 under a native commander (Polyb.
Thyateira was an ancient town re-peopled with Macedonians by Seleucus about 290 B.C. It became an ithportant station on the Roman road from Pergamum to Laodicea, and one of the "Seven Churches" of Asia (Rev. ii.
It showed itself hostile to the Macedonians, and in 266 joined the Chremonidean League against Antigonus Gonatas.
When Philip attacked Perinthus and Byzantium (340), Artaxerxes sent them support, by which they were enabled to withstand the Macedonians; Philip's antagonists in Greece, Demosthenes and his party, hoped to get subsidies from the king, but were disappointed.
These provinces had not yet been conquered by the Macedonians, and Antigonus (governor of Phrygia, Lycia and Pamphylia) refused to undertake the task at the command of Perdiccas.
A change of constitution, imposed perhaps by the Macedonians, was nullified (about 250) by a revolution through which democracy was restored.
Non-Turkish ethnical elements - Albanians, Macedonians, Armenians, Greeks, Arabs, Kurds, Druses - were to be moulded as far as possible into uniformity with the dominant Turkish element.
We may take it then that the last date in the Rhetoric to Alexander is 340; and by a curious coincidence 340 was the year when, on Philip's marching against Byzantium, Alexander was left behind as regent and keeper of the seal, and distinguished himself so greatly that Philip was only too glad that the Macedonians called Alexander king (Plutarch, Alexander, 9).
- When we review generally the extent to which Hellenism had penetrated the outer world in the middle of the 4th century B.e., it must be admitted that it had not seriously affected any but the more primitive races which dwelt upon the borders of the Hellenic lands, and here it would seem, with the doubtful exception of the Macedonians, to have been an affair rather of the courts than of the life of the people.
From our present point of view we may therefore regard this work of Hellenism as one continuous process, initiated by the Macedonians and carried on under Roman protection, and ask in the first place what the institution of a Greek city implied.
Alexander had settled large masses of Greeks in these regions (Greeks, would seem, not Macedonians), whose attempts to return home in 325 and 323 had been frustrated, and it may well be that a racial antagonism quickened the revolt against Macedonian rule in 250.
The Macedonians (and especially Seleucus I.
8, 9): Alexander came up from Egypt, punished the rebels, and settled Macedonians in their city.
No sooner was he gone than the Indians rose and slew the Greek governor; the Macedonians massacred the Indians; a new governor, sent by Alexander, murdered the friendly Punjab prince, Porus, and was himself driven out of the country by the advance of Chandragupta from the Gangetic valley.
To this corresponds the fact that, instead of acting on the doctrines of Aristotle and Callisthenes, - and treating the Macedonians and Greeks as masters, the Asiatics as servants, Alexander had impartial recourse to the powers of all his subjects and strove to amalgamate them.
324 B.C.) the union of Persian and Macedonian by the great marriage-feast, at which all his superior officers, with some 10,000 more Macedonians, were wedded to Persian wives.
The Persian religion was never attacked by the Macedonians and Greeks.
About 280 B.C. the Celts gathered a great host at the head of the Adriatic, and accompanied by the Illyrian tribe of Autariatae, they overthrew the Macedonians, overran Thessaly, and invaded Phocis in order to sack Delphi, but they were finally repulsed, chiefly by the efforts of the Aetolians (279 B.C.).
His name for bonhomie and liberality attached the floating soldier-class of Macedonians and Greeks to his service.
6) Valerius Antias, the chief of sinners in this respect, inserts a decisive Roman victory over the Macedonians, in which 12,000 of the latter were slain and 2200 taken prisoner, an achievement recorded by no other authority.
The orthodox, the Arians, the Eunomians and the Macedonians all sent champions to maintain their special tenets before the emperor, who finally decided in favour of the orthodox party.
After an unsuccessful attempt to come to terms, he drove the Macedonians from the valley of the Aous by skilfully turning an impregnable position.
Quinctius their general, having conquered King Philip and the Macedonians, declare all the Greek states which had been subject to the king henceforward free and independent."
The wealth and the semi-Hellenic character of the people - for in race, as in geographical position, the Thessalians held an intermediate place between the nonHellenic Macedonians and the Greeks of pure blood - caused them to be wanting in patriotism, so that at the time of the Persian wars we find the Aleuadae making common cause with the enemies of Greece.
On the approach of a body of Illyrians, who, though summoned by Perdiccas, unexpectedly declared for Arrhabaeus, the Macedonians fled, and Brasidas's force was rescued from a critical position only by his coolness and ability.
Convinced that it was impossible to meet Alexander in a pitched battle, his plan was to lay waste the country and retire into the interior, meanwhile organizing resistance on sea (where the Persians were far superior to the Macedonians) and carrying the war into Greece.