In i Maccabees v.
Some writers place it north of the Temple on the site afterwards occupied by the fortress of Antonia, but such a position is not in accord with the descriptions either in Josephus or in the books of the Maccabees, which are quite consistent with each other.
At some period between the time of the Maccabees and of Herod, a second or outer wall had been built outside and north of the first wall, but it is not possible to fix an accurate date to this line of defence, as the references to it in Josephus are obscure.
There is also an early Arabic recension, but its relation to the Hebrew and to the Arabic 2 Maccabees is still obscure.
3 If one is apt to acquire too narrow a view of Jewish legalism, the whole experience of subsequent history, through the heroic age of the Maccabees and onwards, only proves that the minuteness of ritual procedure could not cramp the heart.
The author of 2 Maccabees infers from his success that the nation had forfeited all right to divine protection for the time (2 Macc. v.
1 Maccabees credits them with ioo,000 victims. Trypho, the regent of Antiochus VI., put even greater political power into the hands of Jonathan and his brother Simon, but finally seized Jonathan on the pretext of a conference.
Klasse, 1905, Heft 2; and MACCABEES, History.
"Maccabees," § 2, in Ency.
The extant writings of the Jewish sages are contained in the books of Job, Proverbs, Psalms, Ben-Sira, Tobit, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, 4th Maccabees, to which may be added the first chapter of Pirke Aboth (a Talmudic tract giving, probably, pre-Christian material).
The nationalistic conception is set forth: wisdom, created in the beginning, compasses heaven and earth seeking rest and finds at last its dwelling-place in Jerusalem (and so substantially 4th Maccabees); the height of 'sublimity is reached in Wisd.
For the later period he uses the Greek Esther, with its additions, I Maccabees, Polybius, Strabo and Nicolaus of Damascus.
Would seem to have been inspired by the sight or the description of the never-to-be-forgotten procession of the victorious Maccabees in 164 B.C. to rededicate the desecrated Temple.
Such an enthusiasm of militant piety, plainly based on actual successes of Israel and the house of Aaron, can only be referred to the first victories of the Maccabees, culminating in the purification of the Temple in 164 B.C. This restoration of the worship of the national sanctuary, under circumstances that inspired religious feelings very different from those of any other generation since the return from Babylon, might most naturally be followed by an extension of the Temple psalmody; it certainly was followed by some liturgical innovations, for the solemn service of dedication on the 25th day of Chisleu was made the pattern of a new annual feast (that mentioned in John x.
For since the ministers of the Temple at Jerusalem were the aristocracy of the land, and were often, as we know both from the book of Malachi and from the history of the Maccabees, the chief offenders, it is extremely unlikely that they collected for the official services.
22) or the "Feast of the Maccabees," beginning on the 25th day of the ninth month Kislev (December), of the Hebrew ecclesiastical year, and lasting eight days.
Wisdom, 2 and 3 Maccabees), as in the New Testament, Kupcos takes the place of the name of God.
Robert has been compared to the Maccabees, and the fact that he was the ancestor of the Capetian kings of France has invested him with historical importance.
By the Jews it was called the Era of Contracts, because the Syrian governors compelled them to make use of it in civil contracts; the writers of the books of Maccabees, call it the Era of Kings.
The author of the first book of Maccabees makes the era commence with the month Nisan, or April; and the author of the second book with the first Tishrin, or October.
83), it maintained, down even to the days of the Maccabees, a vigorous though somewhat intermittent independence against the power of the Israelites, by whom it was nominally assigned to the territory of Judah.
On the history of the district see further Jews; Maccabees; Palestine.
More interesting than the church itself is the adjoining chapel of the Maccabees, built in the 15th century, and recently restored.
Rise of the Maccabees (I Macc. ii.).
Genesis is but slightly abridged, but Job, Kings, Judges, Esther and Judith as well as the Maccabees are mere homilies epitomized from the corresponding Old Testament books.
Westcott's work for Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, notably his articles on "Canon," "Maccabees," "Vulgate," entailed most careful and thorough preparation, and led to the composition of his subsequent valuable popular books, The Bible in the Church (1864) and a History of the English Bible (1869).
Also MACCABEES, History.
This renders it impossible to accept Haupt's suggestion that Purim is connected with the celebration of Nicanor's Day, to celebrate the triumph of Judas Maccabaeus over the Syrian general Nicanor at Adasa (161 B.C.) on the 13th of Adar, since this is the date of the Fast of Esther, and, besides, the Second Book of Maccabees, which refers to Nicanor's Day, speaks of it as the day before Mordecai's Day (2 Macc. xvi.
Beside the other canonical books of the Old Testament, translated in many cases with modifications or additions, it included translations of other Hebrew books (Ecclesiasticus, Judith, &c.), works composed originally in Greek but imitating to some extent the Hebraic style (like Wisdom), works modelled more closely on the Greek literary tradition, either historical, like 2 Maccabees, or philosophical, like the productions of the Alexandrian school, represented for us by Aristobulus and Philo, in which style and thought are almost wholly Greek and the reference to the Old Testament a mere pretext; or Greek poems on Jewish subjects, like the epic of the elder Philo and Ezechiel's tragedy, Exagoge.
In his allusions to the Gentile rulers with whom the Jews came into contact from the time of the Maccabees onwards, Severus discloses some points which are not without importance.
After this last feat of arms, which has perhaps been exaggerated by the Latin chroniclers, who compare him to Hector and the Maccabees, John died in the habit of a Franciscan friar.
Demetrius offered many bribes to the Maccabees to obtain Jewish support against his rival, including the revenues of Ptolemais for the benefit of the Temple, but in vain.
Some years later, however, Tryphon, an officer of the Syrians, who had grown suspicious of the Maccabees, enticed Jonathan into Ptolemais and there treacherously took him prisoner.
Theologie, 1902, 40-58) and to 4 as well as to 2 Maccabees are not improbable.
MACCABEES, the name (in the plural) of a distinguished Jewish family dominant in Jerusalem in the 2nd century B.C. According to I Macc. ii.
This name Jewish authors naturally prefer to that of Maccabees; they also style i and 2 Macc. "Books of the Hasmonaeans."
The Hasidim indeed were satisfied, and declined to fight longer, but the Maccabees determined not to desist until their nation was politically as well as religiously free.
But as the Maccabees had now in the name of the Syrians cleared the Syrians out of Palestine, Tryphon's jealousy was aroused, and he resolved to be rid of Jonathan, who, with all his cunning, walked into a trap at Ptolemais, was made prisoner and ultimately slain (143).
Bible, the Jewish Encyclopedia Among more popular, sketches are Moss's From Malachi to Matthew (1893); Streanes' The Age of the Maccabees (1898); Morrison's The Jews under Roman Rule (" Story of the Nations " series); W.
Henderson's The Age of the Maccabees (1907); also articles JEWS; SELEUCID DYNASTY.
We may, however, observe that our book points to the period already past - of stress and persecution that preceded the recovery of national independence under the Maccabees, and presupposes as its historical background the most flourishing period of the Maccabean hegemony.
In the preceding section the Maccabees were the religious champions of the nation and the friends of the Hasidim.
The attempt (by Clemen and Beer) to place the TenWeeks Apocalypse before 167, because it makes no reference to the Maccabees, is not successful; for where the history of mankind from Adam to the final judgment is despatched in sixteen verses, such an omission need cause little embarrassment, and still less if the author is the determined foe of the Maccabees, whom he would probably have stigmatized as apostates, if he had mentioned them at all, just as he similarly brands all the Sadducean priesthood that preceded them to the time of the captivity.
JASON OF CYRENE, a Hellenistic Jew, who lived about 100 B.C. and wrote a history of the times of the Maccabees down to the victory over Nicanor (175-161 B.C.).
They were made probably in the time of the Maccabees, and their aim was to supply the religious element which is so completely lacking in the canonical work.
BOOKS OF MACCABEES, the name given to several Apocryphal books of the Old Testament.
The Vulgate contains two books of Maccabees which were declared canonical by the council of Trent (1546) and found a place among the Apocrypha of the English Bible.
None of the books of Maccabees are contained in the Vatican (B); all of them are found in a Syriac recension.
I Maccabees was originally written in Hebrew, but is preserved only in a Greek translation.
Origen gives a transliteration of " its semitic title," I and Jerome says distinctly: " The First Book of Maccabees I found in Hebrew."
Until the council of Trent i Maccabees had only " ecclesiastical " rank, and although not accepted as canonical by the Protestant churches, it has always been held in high estimation.
2 Maccabees, the epitome of a larger work in five books by one Jason of Cyrene, deals with the same history as its predecessor, except that it begins at a point one year earlier (176 B.C.), and stops short at the death of Nicanor (161 B.C.), thus covering a period of only fifteen years.
3 Maccabees, although purporting to be an historical narrative, is really an animated, if somewhat vapid, piece of fiction written in Greek somewhere between ioo B.C. and A.D.
4 Maccabees differs essentially from the other books of this name.