Clouds drifted away from a full moon, drenching the patio with soft lunar light.
The year 1787 was rendered further memorable by Laplace's announcement on the 19th of November (Memoirs, 1786), of the dependence of lunar acceleration upon the secular changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit.
During the voyage he experimented upon the determination of longitude by lunar distances, and ultimately effected the introduction of the method into navigation (q.v.).
In none of the existing, and in but few of the extinct types, are collar-bones, or clavicles, developed; and the scaphoid and lunar bones of the carpus are separate.
Such were the Hindu nakshatras, a word originally signifying stars in general, but appropriated to designate certain small stellar groups marking the divisions of the lunar track.
For genethliacal purposes the signs were divided into six solar and six lunar, the former counted onward from Leo, the " house " of the sun, the latter backward from the moon's domicile in Cancer.
The alternative view, advocated by Weber, that the lunar zodiac was primitively Chaldaean, rests on a very shadowy foundation.
The happy coincidence of a lunar eclipse gives us the 20th of September 331 as the exact day upon which the Macedonian army crossed the Tigris.
Positive proof of the high antiquity of the Hindu lunar zodiac is nevertheless afforded by the undoubted fact that the primitive series opened with Krittika (the Pleiades) as the sign of the vernal equinox.
Before he was twenty he had afforded a specimen of his powers by an important contribution to the lunar theory.
The os magnum of the second row articulating mainly with the lunar of the first, or with the cuneiform, but not with the scaphoid.
Acquaintance with foreign systems of twenty-eight lunar divisions tended doubtless to fix its position, which remained, nevertheless, always equivocal.
The stars had been numbered and named at an early date, and we possess tables of lunar longitudes and observations of the phases of Venus.
Here the " signs " and the " constellations " of the lunar zodiac form two essentially distinct systems. The ecliptic is divided into twenty-seven equal parts, called bhogas or arcs, of Boo' each.
His method of estimating the relative lunar and solar distances is geometrically correct, though the instrumental means at his command rendered his data erroneous.
From the same period also they have employed, in the adjustment of their solar and lunar years, a period of nineteen years, twelve of which are common, containing twelve lunations each, and the remaining seven intercalary, containing thirteen lunations.
The os magnum 1, lunar; sc, scaphoid; u, unciform; of the carpus articulates freely m, magnum; td, trapezoid; tm, with the scaphoid.
The solar day, the solar year, and the lunar month, or lunation, may therefore be called the natural divisions of time.
When Regard Is Had To The Sun'S Motion Alone, The Regulation Of The Year, And The Distribution Of The Days Into Months, May Be Effected Without Much Trouble; But The Difficulty Is Greatly Increased When It Is Sought To Reconcile Solar And Lunar Periods, Or To Make The Subdivisions Of The Year Depend On The Moon, And At The Same Time To Preserve The Correspondence Between The Whole Year And The Seasons.
Each planet had two houses - a solar and a lunar - distributed according to the order of their revolutions.
Among the Arabian and later alchemists we find attempts made to collate compounds by specific properties, and it is to these writers that we are mainly indebted for such terms as "alkali," " sal," &c. The mineral acids, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, and also aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) were discovered, and the vitriols, alum, saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, ammonium carbonate, silver nitrate (lunar caustic) became better known.
But in the early ages of the world, when mankind were chiefly engaged in rural occupations, the phases of the moon must have been objects of great attention and interest, - hence the month, and the practice adopted by many nations of reckoning time by the motions of the moon, as well as the still more general practice of combining lunar with solar periods.
The blood leaves the heart past three semi-lunar valves, by the right aorta, this being alone functional, a feature characteristic of, and peculiar to, birds.
In the article Calendar (q.v.), that part of chronology is treated which relates to the measurement of time, and the principal methods are explained that have been employed, or are still in use, for adjusting the lunar months of the solar year, as well as the intercalations necessary for regulating the civil year according to the celestial motions.
That the Arab was essentially a copy of the Hindu lunar zodiac can scarcely admit of doubt.
In 1763 he published the British Mariner's Guide, which includes the suggestion that in order to facilitate the finding of longitude at sea lunar distances should be calculated beforehand for each year and published in a form accessible to navigators.
There he continued his literary and scientific labours, enjoying congenial intercourse with such men as Matthew Boulton, James Keir, James Watt and Erasmus Darwin at the periodical dinners of the Lunar Society.
This is the Dionysian or Great Paschal Period, and is formed by the multiplication of the numbers 28 and 19, that is, of the solar and lunar cycles, into each other.
Thus the first moon of the year 1873 being the first of a new cycle, the first moon of every sixth year, reckoned backwards or forwards from that date, as 1868, 1863, &c., or 1877, 1882, &c., also begins a new lunar cycle of sixty moons.
Amongst the most important of his works not already mentioned may be named the following: - Mathematical Tracts (1826) on the Lunar Theory, Figure of the Earth, Precession and Nutation, and Calculus of Variations, to which, in the second edition of 1828, were added tracts on the Planetary Theory and the Undulatory Theory of Light; Experiments on Iron-built Ships, instituted for the purpose of discovering a correction for the deviation of the Compass produced by the Iron of the Ships (1839); On the Theoretical Explanation of an apparent new Polarity in Light (1840); Tides and Waves (1842).
At a printing-press established in Walther's house by Regiomontanus, Purbach's Theoricae planetarum novae was published in 1472 or 1473; a series of popular calendars issued from it, and in 1474 a volume of Ephemerides calculated by Regiomontanus for thirty-two years (1474-1506), in which the method of "lunar distances," for determining the longitude at sea, was recommended and explained.
Lunar Theory (Cambridge 1896), or the work of Watson or of Bauschinger on Theoretical Astronomy.
The calendar was the Syro-Macedonian, a solar, as distinct from the primitive lunar, calendar, which Roman influence disseminated throughout Syria; it was practically a reproduction of the Julian calendar.
3 9) it is to be kept for seven days after the first, the first of which is to be "a sabbath," and the eighth "a sabbath" (possibly originally a lunar quarterday): branches of four trees are to be taken.
Both festivals, of course, belong to a lunar calendar, and move through the solar year every thirty-two years.
U, ulna; R, radius; c, cuneiform; 1, lunar; s, scaphoid; u, unciform; m, magnum; td, trapezoid; tm, trapezium.
The determination of this ratio is one of the most difficult problems in the lunar theory.
The colours are much fainter, and according to Aristotle, who claims to be the first observer of this phenomenon, the lunar bows are only seen when the moon is full.
Several cycles were formerly known in Europe; but most of them were invented for the purpose of adjusting the solar and lunar divisions of time, and were rather employed in the regulation of the calendar than as chronological eras.
And the Pleiades continued, within historical memory, to be the first asterism of the lunar zodiac. 2 Lenormant, Origines de l'Histoire, i.
The synodical revolution of the moon laid down the lines of the solar, its sidereal revolution those of the lunar zodiac. The first was a circlet of " full moons "; the second marked the diurnal stages of the lunar progress round the sky, from and back again to any selected star.
Thus Mercury, as the planet nearest the sun, obtained Virgo, the sign adjacent to Leo, with the corresponding lunar house in Gemini; Venus had Libra (solar) and Taurus (lunar); and so for the rest.
A ram frequently stamped on coins of Antiochus, with head reverted towards the moon and a star (the planet Mars), signified Aries to be the lunar house of Mars.
Excited to emulation and employing the more rapid wet-collodion process, he succeeded before long in obtaining exquisitely defined lunar pictures, which remained unsurpassed until the appearance of the Rutherfurd photographs in 1865.
The Passover was kept at the full moon of the lunar month Nisan, the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year; the Paschal lambs were slain on the afternoon of the, 4th Nisan, and the Passover was eaten after sunset the same day - which, however, as the Jewish day began at sunset, was by their reckoning the early hours of the r 5th Nisan; the first fruits (of the barley harvest) were solemnly offered on the 16th.
Although it did not enter into the calendar of the Greeks, and was not introduced at Rome till after the reign of Theodosius, it has been employed from time immemorial in almost all eastern countries; and as it forms neither an aliquot part of the year nor of the lunar month, those who reject the Mosaic recital will be at a loss, as Delambre remarks, to assign it to an origin having much semblance of probability.
But in the course of a few years the accumulated difference between the solar year and twelve lunar months would become considerable, and have the effect of transporting the commencement of the year to a different season.
In 1872 Airy conceived the idea of treating the lunar theory in a new way, and at the age of seventy-one he embarked on the prodigious toil which this scheme entailed.
His treatise was remarkable, not only as offering a satisfactory explanation of the coincidence between the lunar periods of rotation and revolution, but as containing the first employment of his radical formula of mechanics, obtained by combining with the principle of d'Alembert that of virtual velocities.
Though the /see' are thus strictly portions of solar time, yet what is remarkable, though not peculiar to China, they give their name to the lunar months, each month or lunation having the name of the chung-ki or sign at which the sun arrives during that month.
The general coincidence of the Sabbath or seventh day with the easily recognized first quarter and full moon established its sacred character as lunar as well as planetary.
Some authorities regard Medea as a lunar divinity, but the ancient conception of her as a Thessalian sorceress is probably correct.
The larvae of several nocturnal Lepidoptera feed upon the leaves of the willows, and the trunk of the sallow is often injured by the perforations of the lunar hornet sphinx (Trochilium crabroniforme).
Relationship of a more intimate kind connects the Hindu lunar mansions with those of the Arabs and Chinese.
The Mongolian peoples not only count their lunar months by these signs, but they reckon the successive days by them, rat-day, bull-day, tiger-day, &c., and also, by combining the twelve signs in rotation with the elements, they obtain a means of marking each year in the sixty-year cycle, as the woodrat year, the fire-tiger year, &c. This method is highly artificial, and the reappearance of its principle in the Mexican and Central American calendar is suggestive of importation from Asia.
8.773" „ lunar equation..