Starting from the Amur river and reaching along the eastern margin of the Gobi desert towards the sources of the Hwangho, it merges into the Altyn-tagh and the Kuen-lun, forming the northern face of the vast Tibetan highlands which are bounded on the south by the Himalaya.
The broad mountainous slope by which it is connected with the lower levels of Hindostan contains the ranges known as the Himalaya; the name Kuen-lun is generally applied to the northern slope that descends to the central plains of the Gobi, though these mountains are not locally known under those names, Kuen-lun being apparently a Chinese designation.
No longer do we regard the Kuen-lun mountains, which extend from the frontiers of Kashmir, north of Leh, almost due east to the Chinese province of Kansu, as the southern limit of the Gobi or Turkestan depression.
The Kuen-lun, Nan-shan and the mountain ranges of southern China are, perhaps, of earlier date, but nevertheless they lie in the same belt.
ALTYN-TAGH, or Astyn-Tagh, one of the chief constituent ranges of the Kuen-lun in Central Asia, separating Tibet from east Turkestan and the Desert of Gobi.
West of the Lun river the defensive line offered by the hills is less defined, and the line adopted for the permanent works was on the north only 3000 yds.
The Lun-Ho valley Where it cut through the line was closed by entanglements and fougasses, and swept by batteries on each side.
At Sung-Shu the stormers got into the fort, but suffered much from the artillery on the western side of the Lun-ho valley, and were beaten out of it again in minutes; men tried in vain to get up the Lun-ho valley to take Sung-Shu in rear.
KUEN-LUN, or KwEN-LUN, a term used to designate generally the mountain ranges which run along the northern edge of the great Tibetan plateau in Central Asia.
At any rate the Astintagh, whether it is the principal continuation of the Kuen-lun or only a subsidiary flanking system, is itself the westward continuation of the Nan-shan or Southern Mountains, which reach down far into China (to 113° E.).
Taken in its widest meaning, the Kuen-lun Mountains thus stretch in a wavy line for nearly 2 500 m.
In the tectonic structure of Asia the Kuen-lun forms, as it were, the backbone of the continent.
Western Kuen-lun and Astin-tagh) is throughout double; and this " twinning " of the mountain-ranges, as also of the intermont lake-basins among the Kuen-lun ranges, is a peculiar feature of the Tibetan plateau.
Ritter (Asien, ii.) was the first of modern geographers to recognize the true character of the Kuen-lun as a border range of the Tibetan plateau; and Baron von Richthofen (China, i.
But though von Richthofen's general conception of the Kuen-lun system was broadly sound and in accordance with facts, the details both of his description and of that of his pupil Wegener' require now very considerable revision, and need even to be in part recast, as a consequence of explorations and investigations made since they wrote by, amongst others, the Russian explorers N.
These eastward continuations of the double border-range of the Pamirs are the constituent ranges of the Kuen-lun proper.
Altogether this western extremity of the Kuen-lun system is a very rugged mountainous region, a consequence partly of the intricacy of the flanking ranges and spurs, partly of the powerful lateral compression to which they have been subjected, and partly of the great and abrupt differences in vertical elevation between the crests of the ranges and the bottoms of the deep, narrow, rugged glens between them.
Now as Altyn-tagh 2 is an accepted, though in point of fact erroneous, name for Astin-tagh, it is clear that Grenard considers the main Kuen-lun ranges to be continued directly by the Astin-tagh.
Littledale'sChokur Pass (9530 ft.) and others at altitudes ranging from 8600 to 1 In " Orographie des Kwen-lun," in Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin (1891).
The nomenclature of the numerous ranges in this part of the Kuen-lun is extremely confusing, owing to different travellers having applied the same name to different ranges and to different travellers have applied different names to what is probably often identically the same range.
The Astin-tagh, although it occupies a similar position to the twin ranges of the Western Kuen-lun, in that it forms the outermost escarpment or border-ridge on the north of the Tibetan plateau,would appear in the opinion of the most competent judges (e.g.
And as the relative altitudes of crest and pass remain approximately the same as in the Western Kuen-lun, it is evident how greatly the general elevation of the twin border ridge decreases towards the east.
Nevertheless the Akato-tagh is only of secondary importance in the general Kuen-lun system, being nothing more than a central ridge running along the broad Kakir valley that separates the Astin-tagh from the Chimentagh.
In the Kalta-alaghan, which is the culminating range of this part of the Kuen-lun, and is overtopped by towering, snow-clad peaks, the passes climb to considerably higher altitudes, namely, 14,560, 1 4,47 0, 1 4,43 0 and 14,190 ft., while the pass of Avraz-davan ascends to 15,700 ft.
Of it none of the long succession of lofty parallel ranges which ridge the Tibetan highlands seems to have any connexion with the Kuen-lun system.
Hence these ten parallel ranges of the middle Kuen-lun system may be grouped in three divisions - (1) the more strictly border ranges of the Upper and Lower Astin-tagh and the Akatotagh; (2) the three ranges of Chimen-tagh, Ara-tagh and Kaltaalaghan, which may be considered as forming a transitional system between the foregoing and the third division; (3) the Arka-tagh, which constitute the elevated rampart of the Tibetan plateau proper.
- An enumeration of the works published before 1890, and a map of itineraries, will be found in Wegener's Versuch einer Orographie des Kuen-lun (Marburg, 1891), but his map is only approximately correct.
As Lynn (Lun, Lenne, Bishop's Lynn) owes its origin to the trade which its early settlers carried by the Ouse and its tributaries its history dates from the period of settled occupation by the Saxons.
The general structure of the trans-Himalayan chains appears to indicate that the main axis of upheaval of the whole vast mass of the Tibetan highlands is to be found on two approximately parallel lines, represented the one by the Kuen-lun and the other by a line which is more or less coincident with the watershed between India and the central lake region, extending from Lake Pangong to Tengri Nor, the plateau enclosed between the two being wrinkled by minor folds, of which the relative elevation is comparatively low, averaging from woo to 1500 ft.
The central lake region, extending from the Kuen-lun to the Himalaya, is also characterized by extreme dryness in autumn, winter and spring, with an abundance of rain in summer, whilst the eastern mountain region, extending to China south of the Dang la (which, with an altitude of about 20,000 ft., stretches from 90° to 97° E.
Elevation on the plateau south of the Kuen-lun, and a temperate climate prevailing about the sources of the Dre chu (Yangtsze) in August.
- Works on selenography: Hevelius, Selenographia sive lun g e descriptio (Danzig, 1647); Riccioli, Almagestum novum (Bologna, 1651); J.
OPAH (Lampris lun g), a pelagic fish, the affinities of which are still a puzzle to ichthyologists.
II.-East Turkestan East or Chinese Turkestan, sometimes called Kashgaria, is a region in the heart of Asia, lying between the Tian-shan ranges on the north and the Kuen-lun ranges on the south, and stretching east from the Pamirs to the desert of Gobi and the Chinese province of Kan-su (98° E.).
The Kuen-lun on the south rise steeply from the flat deserts of the Takla-makan and Kum-tagh by successive terraces until they reach an elevation of 19,000 to 20,000 ft.
The Pe-shan swelling, with its flanking ranges of the Chol-tagh and Kuruk-tagh, which, by gradually approaching the Nan-shan section of the Kuen-lun in about 98° E., narrow the desert, are a good deal lower, namely 5000 to 9000 ft.
A similar string of oases exist all along the north foot of the Kuen-lun, e.g.
East Turkestan contains several minerals, such as gold, mined to a very small extent in the Kuen-lun Mountains; lead found in the country west of Kashgar and once worked in the Kuruk-tagh, and copper and petroleum near Kashgar; coal exists in abundance in the Kulja valley and is found at Ak-su, Korla, Kara-shahr, Turfan and Hami on the northern verge of the deserts.
This state of affairs lasted until the 14th century, when Tughlak Timur, who extended his dominions to the Kuen-lun, accepted Islam.
The Khotan-Darya rises in the Kuen-lun Mountains in two headstreams, the Kara-kash and the Yurun-kash, which unite towards the middle of the desert, some 90 m.
The Lun-Yii, or Analects, " Discourses and Dialogues," is a compilation in which many of his disciples must have taken part, and has great value as a record of his ways and utterances; but its chapters are mostly disjecta membra, affording faint traces of any guiding method or mind.
The Mariom Pamir defines the western extremity of the Kuen Lun, which stretches eastwards for 250 m.