Fabricius afterwards gained a series of victories over the Samnites, the Lucanians and the Bruttians, and on his return to Rome received the honour of a triumph.
Finally he was sent with a mercenary army to Italy to protect the Tarentines against the attacks of Lucanians or Messapians: he fell together with the greater part of his force at Mandonion 1 on the same day as that on which the battle of Chaeronea was fought.
In one campaign, in which he was joined by the Lucanians, he devastated the territories of Thurii, Croton and Locri.
After long struggles the city fell into the hands of the Lucanians (who nevertheless did not expel the Greek colonists) and in 273 B.C. it became a Latin colony under the Roman rule, the name being changed to the Latin form Paestum.
Thurii had a democratic constitution and good laws, and, though we hear little of its history till in 390 it received a severe defeat from the rising power of the Lucanians, many beautiful coins testify to the wealth and splendour of its days of prosperity.
In the 4th century it continued to decline, and at length called in the help of the Romans against the Lucanians, and then in 282 against Tarentum.
The Lucanians and Bruttians on the north captured one town after another.
Repeated expeditions from Sparta and Epirus tried in vain to prop up the decaying Greek states against the Lucanians and Bruttians; and when in 282 the Romans appeared in the Tarentine Gulf the end was close at hand.
The district of Lucania was so called from the people bearing the name Lucani (Lucanians) by whom it was conquered about the middle of the 5th century B.C. Before that period it was included under the general name of Oenotria, which was applied by the Greeks to the southernmost portion of Italy.
The Lucanians were a southern branch of the Samnite or Sabelline race, who spoke the Osca Lingua.
The Lucanians gradually conquered the whole country (with the exception of the Greek towns on the coast) from the borders of Samnium and Campania to the southern extremity of Italy.
Subsequently the inhabitants of the peninsula, now known as Calabria, broke into insurrection, and under the name of Bruttians established their independence, after which the Lucanians became confined within the limits already described.
The country never recovered from these disasters, and under the Roman government fell into decay, to which the Social War, in which the Lucanians took part with the Samnites against Rome (90-88 B.C.) gave the finishing stroke.
In 332 he crossed over to Italy to assist the Tarentines against the Lucanians, Bruttians and Samnites.
Dentatus was consul for the third time in 274, when he finally crushed the Lucanians and Samnites, and censor in 272: In the latter capacity he began to build an aqueduct to carry the waters of the Anio into the city, but died (270) before its completion.
The peoples of the south (Lucanians, Bruttians, Mamertines) show a Greek principle of nomenclature (Mommsen, Unterital.