He died after a protracted illness at Israelsdorf, near Lubeck, on the 21st of May 1894.
Even went so far as to disperse 123 skilled Germans whom Ivan's agent had collected and brought to Lubeck for shipment to a Baltic port.
Stralsund entertains passengerboat communications with Barth, Stettin, Rostock and Lubeck as well as with various small ports on the isle of Riigen.
It was one of the five Wendish towns whose alliance extorted from King Eric of Norway a favourable commercial treaty in 1284-1285; and in the 14th century it was second only to Lubeck in the Hanseatic League.
In 1528 he arranged the church affairs of Brunswick and Hamburg; in 1530 those of Lubeck and Pomerania.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
Thus the three bishoprics of Lubeck, Ratzeburg and Schwerin, which hitherto had been fief of the Reich, now passed under Danish suzerainty.
Lubeck was a peculiarly valuable possession.
Only through Lubeck, moreover, could supplies and reinforcements be poured into the German military colonies in Livonia.
By closing Lubeck Valdemar had German trade and the German over-seas settlements entirely at his mercy.
The connecting link between the western and the eastern Baltic was the isle of Gotland, where German merchants from Lubeck had established a depot (the later Visby)_ The fur-trade with the Esthonians and Livonians proved so lucrative that a German colony was planted in Livonia itself at what was afterwards Riga, and in 1201 for its better security the colony was converted into a bishopric. A still firmer footing was gained by the Germans on Livonian soil when Abbot Theoderick of Riga founded the order of the Sword (a foundation confirmed by the pope in 1204), whose duty it was to convert the heathen Esths and Livs and appropriate as much of their land in the process as possible.
In the winter of 1190-91 certain pious merchants from Bremen and Lubeck (towns with which the Order was still to be connected in the days of its later history) laid the foundations of a hospital in a vessel which they had drawn ashore.(fn2) Within a few years the foundation apparently became attached to the German Church of St Mary the Virgin at Jerusalem; and in March 1198 (there being present in the Holy Land a number of Germans, the relics of Henry VI.'s projected crusade), the great men of the army and the kingdom raised the brethren of the German Hospital of St Mary to the rank of an order of knights.
Since the days of Adolf of Holstein and Henry the Lion, a movement of German colonization, in which farmers from the Low Countries, merchants from Lubeck, and monks of the Cistercian Order all played their parts, had been spreading German influence from the Oder to the Vistula, from the Vistula to the Dwina - to Prague, to Gnesen, and even to Novgorod the Great.
The towns possessed the rights of Magdeburg, or (like Elbing) those of Lubeck; the most important of them soon came to join the Hanseatic League.
In 1250 it received a town constitution and Lubeck rights from Duke Wratislaw of Pomerania.
In 1270 it joined the Hanse towns, Stralsund, Rostock, Wismar and Lubeck, and took part in the wars which they carried on against the kings of Denmark and Norway.
He was one of the plenipotentiaries who concluded peace with Lubeck at the congress of Hamburg, and subsequently took an active part in the great work of national reconstruction necessitated by the Reformation, acting as mediator between the Danish and the German parties who were contesting for 2 Hence another of the names - " hurricane-bird " - by which this species is occasionally known.
This now stretched from Lubeck to the Pyrenees, from Brest to Rome; while another arm (only nominally severed from the empire by the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy) extended down the eastern shore of the Adriatic to Ragusa and Cattaro, threatening the Turkish empire with schemes of partition always imminent but never achieved.
Yet as systematists their authors were no worse than Klein, whose Historiae Avium Prodromus, appearing at Lubeck in 1750, and Stemmata Avium at Leipzig in 1759, met with considerable favour in some quarters.
' After Klein's death his Prodromus, written in Latin, had the unwonted fortune of two distinct translations into German, published in the same year 1760, the one at Leipzig and Lubeck by Behn, the other at Danzig by Reyger - each of whom added more or less to the original.
Even the free cities were divided, Hamburg and Lubeck for, Bremen and Frankfort against.
Those in the Rudimentum novitiarum published at Lubeck in 1475 are from woodcuts, while the maps in the first two editions of Ptolemy published in Italy in 1472 are from copper plates.
HERMANN VON FEHLING (1812-1885), German chemist, was born at Lubeck on the 9th of June 1885.
Only Blucher now remained in the field, and he too was driven at length into Lubeck with his back to the sea.
The Hamburg stations, connected with the other by the Verbindungs-Bahn (or metropolitan railway) crossing the Lombards-Brucke, are those of the Venloer (or Hanoverian, as it is often called) Bahnhof on the south-east, in close proximity to the harbour, into which converge the lines from Cologne and Bremen, Hanover and Frankfort-on-Main, and from Berlin, via Nelzen; the Klostertor-Bahnhof (on the metropolitan line) which temporarily superseded the old Berlin station, and the Lubeck station a little to the north-east, during the erection of the new central station, which occupies a site between the Klostertor-Bahnhof and the Lombards-Brucke.
Craft gilds were already in existence, but these had no share in the government; for, though the Lubeck rule excluding craftsmen from the Rath did not obtain, they were excluded in practice.
The defensive alliance of the city with Lubeck in 1241, extended for other purpose by the treaty of 1255, practically laid the foundations of the Hanseatic League, of which Hamburg continued to be one of the principal members.
1350) in Lubeck Cathedral.
He was educated at the Lubeck gymnasium and the university of Kiel, with which he was connected for nearly 65 years.
From the coast, and the bailiwick (amt) of Bergedorf, which down to 1867 was held in common by Lubeck and Hamburg.
In 1900 Lubeck was put into direct communication with the Elbe at Lauenburg by the opening of the Elbe-Trave Canal, 42 m.
In length, and constructed at a cost of £1,177,700, of which the state of Lubeck contributed £802,700, and the kingdom of Prussia £375, 000.
It is thus able to accommodate vessels up to Boo tons burden; and the passage from Lubeck to Lauenburg occupies 18 to 21 hours.
Magdeburg is one of the most important railway centres in northern Germany; and the Elbe, besides being bridged - it divides there into three arms - several times for vehicular traffic, ' See Der Bau des Elbe-Trave Canals and seine Vorgeschichte (Lubeck, 1900).
ERNST CURTIUS (1814-1896), German archaeologist and historian, was born at Lubeck on the 2nd of September 1814.
His brother, Georg Curtius (1820-1885), philologist, was born at Lubeck on the 16th of April 1820.
It received civic rights in 1275, belonged to Lubeck and Hamburg conjointly from 1420 to 1868, and in the latter year was purchased by Hamburg.
The town, which obtained civic rights in 1200, also became the seat of the dukes of Schleswig, but its commerce gradually dwindled owing to the rivalry of Lubeck, the numerous wars in which the district was involved, and the silting up of the Schlei.
His father sent him in his sixteenth year to the gymnasium at Lubeck, where he became so much interested in ancient languages that he abandoned his idea of a legal career and resolved to devote himself to the study of theology.
In 1241 we find Lubeck and Hamburg agreeing to safeguard the important road connecting the Baltic and the North Sea.
The first known meeting of the "maritime towns," later known as the Wendish group and including Lubeck, Hamburg, Luneburg, Wismar, Rostock and Stralsund, took place in 1256.
According to the "Skra," the by-laws of the Novgorod branch, the four aldermen of the community of Germans, who among other duties held the keys of the common chest, deposited in Wisby, were to be chosen from the merchants of the Gothland association and of the towns of Lubeck, Soest and Dortmund.
But with the extension of the East and West trade beyond the confines of the Baltic, this association by the end of the century was losing its position of leadership. Its inheritance passed to the gradually forming union of towns, chiefly those known as Wendish, which looked to Lubeck as their head.
In 1293 the Saxon and Wendish merchants at Rostock decided that all appeals from Novgorod be taken to Lubeck instead of to Wisby, and six years later the Wendish and Westphalian towns, meeting at Lubeck, ordered that the Gothland association should no longer use a common seal.
Created Lubeck a free imperial city, expressly declared that Lubeck citizens trading in England should be free from the dues imposed by the merchants of Cologne and should enjoy equal rights and privileges.
In 1266 and 1267 the merchants of Hamburg and Lubeck received from Henry III.
Lubeck and Hamburg, however, dominated the German trade in the ports of the east coast, notably in Lynn and Boston, while they were strong in the organized trading settlements at York, Hull, Ipswich, Norwich, Yarmouth and Bristol.
In 1252 the first treaty privileges for German trade in Flanders show two men of Lubeck and Hamburg heading the "Merchants of the Roman Empire," and in the later organization of the counter at Bruges four or five of the six aldermen were chosen from towns east of the Elbe, with Lubeck steadily predominant.
It had come to depend largely upon the Germans for the importation of all its luxuries and of many of its necessities, as well as for the exportation of its products, but regular trade with the three kingdoms was confined for the most part to the Wendish towns, with Lubeck steadily asserting an exclusive ascendancy.
The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
Under the pressure of commercial and political necessity, authority was definitely transferred from the Hansas of merchants abroad to the Hansa of towns at home, and the sense of unity had become such that in 1380 a Lubeck official could declare that "whatever touches one town touches all."
The governing body of the Hansa was the assembly of town representatives, the "Hansetage," held irregularly as occasion required at the summons of Lubeck, and, with few exceptions, attended but scantily.
It had no common seal, though that of Lubeck was accepted, particularly by foreigners, in behalf of the League.
Lubeck, with the counters abroad, watched over the execution of the measures voted by the assembly, but there was no regular administrative mi.
Since the authority of the League rested primarily on the moral support of its members, allied in common trade interests and acquiescing in the able leadership of Lubeck, its only means of compulsion was the "Verhansung," or exclusion of a recalcitrant town from the benefits of the trade privileges of the League.
Always a place of great trading importance, long the place of election for the German kings, and until 1866, together with Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck, one of the four free cities of Germany, it still retains its position as one of the leading commercial centres of the German empire.
His father was Christian Augustus (1673-1726), duke of Schleswig-HolsteinGottorp, bishop of Lubeck, and administrator, during the war of 1700-1721, of the duchies of Holstein-Gottorp for his nephew Charles Frederick; his mother was Albertina Frederica of BadenDurlach.
From 1727 to 1750 he was bishop of Lubeck, and administrator of Holstein-Kiel during the minority of Duke Charles Peter Ulrich, afterwards Peter III.
He obtained a situation at Lubeck, where he had leisure to cultivate his natural taste for drawing and poetry.