By early writers the word was generally given as an equivalent of the Linnaean Loxia, but that genus has been found to include many forms not now placed in the same family.
HAWFINCH, a bird so called from the belief that the fruit of the hawthorn (Crataegus Oxyacantha) forms its chief food, the Loxia coccothraustes of Linnaeus, and the Coccothraustes vulgaris of modern ornithologists, one of the largest of the finch family (Fringillidae), and found over nearly the whole of Europe, in Africa north of the Atlas and in Asia from Palestine to Japan.
Genera: (a) Loxia, Fringilla, Emberiza; (b) Caprimulgus, Hirundo, Pipra; (c) Turdus, Ampelis, Tanagra, Muscicapa; (d) Parus, Motacilla, Alauda, Sturnus, Columba.
Were we merely to consider the superficial character of the form of the bill, the genus Loxia (in its modern sense) would be easily divided not only from the other finches, but from all other birds.
On the upper verge of the pine forests, or in the scrubby vegetation just beyond, the following are not uncommon - black woodpecker (Picus martius), ring-ousel (Turdus torquatus), Bonelli's warbler (Phylloscopus Bonellii), crested tit (Parus cristatus), citril finch (Citrinella alpina), siskin (Chrysomitris spinus), crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), blackcock (Tetrao tetrix), and the alpine varieties of the marsh-tit (Parus palustris, borealis) and tree-creeper (Certhia familiaris, costae).
Kreuzschnabel), the name given to a genus of birds, belonging to the family Fringillidae, or finches, from the unique peculiarity they possess among the whole class of having the horny sheaths of the bill crossing one another obliquely,' whence the appellation Loxia (Xo os, obliquus), conferred by Gesner on the group and continued by Linnaeus.
The common crossbill of the Palaearctic region (Loxia curvirostra) is about the size of a skylark, but more stoutly built.