In 1394 the countship came to the house of Orleans, a member of which, Francis I., became king of France in 1515 and raised it to the rank of duchy in favour of his mother Louise of Savoy.
LOUIS PHILIPPE JOSEPH ORLEANS, DUKE OF (1747-1793), called Philippe Egalite, son of Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, and of Louise Henriette of Bourbon-Conti, was born at St Cloud on the 13th of April 1747.
Having borne the title of duke of Montpensier until his grandfather's death in 1752, he became duke of Chartres, and in 1769 married Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon-Penthievre, daughter and heiress of the duke of Penthievre, grand admiral of France, and the richest heiress of the time.
Louise Charlin Perrin Labe >>
At the congress of Vienna, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were assigned to Marie Louise (daughter of Francis I.
(son of Louis of Etruria and Marie Louise, daughter of Charles IV., king of Spain).
In 1854, his widow, Marie Louise (daughter of Ferdinand, prince of Artois and duke of Berry), became regent for her son Robert.
Of Lorraine, duke of Guise, sold it to "Mademoiselle," Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, duchesse de Montpensier, who made it over (1682) to the duke of Maine, bastard son of Louis XIV., as part of the price of the release of her lover Lauzun.
Parma and Piacenza were assigned to Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor and wife of Napoleon, on behalf of her son, the little Napoleon, but by subsequent arrangements (1816-1817) the duchy was to revert at her death to the Bourbons of Parma, then reigning at Lucca.
The duchy of Lucca was given to Marie Louise of BourbonParma, who, at the death of Marie Louise of Austria, would return to Parma, when Lucca would be handed over to Tuscany.
In February 1831 these provinces rose, raised the red, white and green tricolor (which henceforth took the place of the Carbonarist colors as the Italian flag), and shook off the papal yoke with surprising ease.1 At Parma too there was an outbreak and a demand for the constitution; Marie Louise could not grant it because of her engagements with Austria, and, therefore, abandoned her dominions.
The duke of Modena and Charles Louis of Parma (Marie Louise was now dead) abandoned their capitals; in both cities provisional governments were set up which subsequently proclaimed annexation to Piedmont.
A drunken libertine and a cruel tyrant ~ (May 1849); the latter was assassinated in 1854, and a regency under his widow, Marie Louise, was insti tuted during which the government became somewhat more tolerable, although by no means free from political persecution; in 1857 the Austrian troops evacuated the duchy.
LOUISE DE LA FAYETTE (c. 1616-1665), was one of the fourteen children of John, comte de La Fayette, and Marguerite de Bourbon-Busset.
Louise became maid of honour to Anne of Austria, and Richelieu sought to attract the attention of Louis XIII.
See Memoires de Madame de Motteville; Victor Cousin, Madame de Hautefort (Paris, 1868); L'Abbe Sorin, Louise-Angele de La Fayette (Paris, 1893).
Seymour as The Great Frenchman and the Little (xenevese (1904); Louise Colet, La Jeunesse de Mirabeau (1841); and Alfred Begis, Mirabeau, son interdiction judiciaire (1895).
It is time now to notice two important events in the life of the emperor, namely his divorce of Josephine and his union with Marie Louise of Austria.
Opinions were divided in the emperor's circle between a Russian and an Austrian princess; but the marked coolness with which overtures for the hand of the tsar's sister were received at St Petersburg, and the skill with which Count Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, let it be known that a union with the archduchess, Marie Louise, would be welcomed at Schonbrunn, helped to decide the matter.
Napoleon, though he never again worked as he had done, soon freed himself from complete dependence on Marie Louise; and he never allowed her to intrude into political affairs, for which, indeed, she had not the least aptitude.
At Dresden he held court for a few days in May 1812 with Marie Louise: the emperor Francis, the king of Prussia and a host of lesser dignitaries were present - a sign of the power of the modern Charlemagne.
Marie Louise was to have the duchy of Parma for herself and her son.
De Meneval, Napoleon et Marie Louise (3 vols., Paris, 1843-1845); Baron A.
She was not very fortunate in this first marriage, but her brother's accession to the throne made her, next to their mother Louise of Savoy, the most powerful woman of the kingdom.
MARIE LOUISE (1791-1847), second wife of Napoleon I., was the daughter of Francis I., emperor of Austria, and of the princess Theresa of Naples, and was born on the 12th of December 1791.
Under Marie Louise the etiquette of the court of France became more stately and the ritual of religious ceremonies more elaborate.
During the popular movements of 1831 Marie Louise had to take refuge with the Austrian garrison at Piacenza; on the restoration of her rule by the Austrians its character deteriorated, Parma becoming an outwork of the Austrian empire.
See Correspondance de Marie Louise 1799-1847 (Vienna, 1887); J.
Baron von Helfert, Marie Louise (Vienna, 1873); E.
Wertheimer, Die Heirath der Erzherzogin Marie Louise mit Napoleon I.
See also the Memoirs of Bausset, Mme Durand Meneval and Metternich; and Max Billard, The Marriage Ventures of Marie Louise, English version by Evelyn duchess of Wellington (1910).
Louise of Savoy had employed him as her adviser in her affairs, and had made him tutor to her son.
During the regency of Louise of Savoy he, together with Florimond Robertet, was at the head of affairs.
He took an active part in the suit brought by Louise of Savoy against the Constable de Bourbon, and in.
Et le prince de Kaunitz (2 vols., Paris, 1889-1891); for further letters see Comte de Reiset, Lettres de la reine Marie Antoinette a la landgrave Louise de Hesse-Darmstadt (1865); id.
To the great joy of the Dutch people, Queen Wilhelmina, on the 30th of April 1909, gave birth to an heir to the throne, the Princess Juliana (Juliana Louise Emma Maria Wilhelmina).
And of Louise Amalie of Brunswick, sister of the wife of Frederick the Great, was born at Berlin on the 25th of September 1744, and became heir to the throne on his father's death in 1757.
(1494-1547), king of France, son of Charles of Valois, count of Angouleme, and Louise of Savoy, was born at Cognac on the 12th of September 1494.
The count of Angouléme, who was the great-grandson of King Charles V., died in 1496, and Louise watched over her son with passionate tenderness.
Francois de Rochefort, abbot of St Mesmin, instructed Francis and his sister Marguerite in Latin and history; Louise herself taught them Italian and Spanish; and the library of the château at Amboise was well stocked with romances of the Round Table, which exalted the lad's imagination.
In the early years of his reign the conduct of affairs was chiefly in the hands of Louise of Savoy, Chancellor Antoine Duprat, Secretary Florimond Robertet, and the two Gouffiers, Boisy and Bonnivet.
By ChampollionFigeac, Paris, 1847, of doubtful authenticity); Relations des ambassadeurs venitiens, &c. Of the memoirs and chronicles, see the journal of Louise of Savoy in S.