The next work on the husbandry of Scotland is The Countryman's Rudiments, or an Advice to the Farmers in East Lothian, how to labour and improve their Grounds, said to have been written by John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven about the time of the Union, and reprinted in 1723.
The author bespeaks the favour of those to whom he addresses himself in the following significant terms: - " Neither shall I affright you with hedging, ditching, marling, chalking, paring and burning, draining, watering and such like, which are all very good improvements indeed, and very agreeable with the soil and situation of East Lothian, but I know ye cannot bear as yet a crowd of improvements, this being only intended to initiate you in the true method and principles of husbandry."
The farm-rooms in East Lothian, as in other districts, were divided into infield and outfield.
Under this management the produce seems to have been three times the seed; and yet, says the writer, " if in East Lothian they did not leave a higher stubble than in other places of the kingdom, their grounds would be in a much worse condition than at present they are, though bad enough."
He appears to have been a blind Lothian man, in humble circumstances, who had some reputation as a story-teller, and who received, on five occasions, in 1490 and 1491, gifts from James IV.
SPOTTISWOODE (SPOTTISWOOD, SPOTISWOOD or [[Spotswood), John]] (1565-1639), archbishop of St Andrews and historian of Scotland, eldest son of John Spottiswood, minister of Calder and "superintendent" of Lothian, was born in 1565.
In these districts and others the number has become much reduced, owing doubtless in part to the fatal practice of catching the birds just before or during the breeding-season; but perhaps the strongest cause of their growing scarcity is the constant breaking-up of waste lands, and the extirpation of weeds (particularly of the order Compositae) essential to the improved system of agriculture; for in many parts of Scotland, East Lothian for instance, where goldfinches were once as plentiful as sparrows, they are now only rare stragglers, and yet there they have not been thinned by netting.
Regaining his kingdom after the defeat of the Scots at Halidon Hill in July 1333, Baliol surrendered the whole of the district formerly known as Lothian to Edward, and did homage for Scotland to the English king.
ALEXANDER WEDDERBURN ROSSLYN, 1sT Earl of (1733-1805), Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, was the eldest son of Peter Wedderburn (a lord of session as Lord Chesterhall), and was born in East Lothian on the 13th of February 1733.
A similar festal intention in design and colouring, with similar mastery in passages and even less sense of harmonious relations in the whole, is apparent in a second important picture painted by Darer at Venice, "The Virgin and Child with the Goldfinch," formerly in the collection of Lord Lothian and now at Berlin.
In 1880 he entertained Mr Gladstone at Dalmeny, and during the "Mid Lothian campaign" he had much to do with the stage-management of the demonstrations.
1882), who in 1909 married a daughter of Lord Henry Grosvenor, 3rd son of the 1st duke of Westminster, entered parliament in 1906 as Liberal member for Mid Lothian, but retired in 1910; he was well known as a cricketer, captaining the Surrey eleven in 1905 and 1906.
The Campsie, Kilpatrick and Dumbarton hills, the high ground from Greenock to Ardrossan, and the Carleton Hills in East Lothian are examples of the plateaus, while Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh and the Binn of Burntisland illustrate the puys.
The driest climates of the east are in Tweeddale about Kelso and Jedburgh, the low grounds of East Lothian, and those on the Moray Firth from Elgin round to Dornoch.
All the great iron foundries and engineering works are situated in the Central Plain or Lowlands, in close proximity to the shipbuilding yards and coalfields, especially in the lower and part of the middle wards of Lanarkshire, in certain districts of Ayrshire and Renfrewshire, at and near Dumbarton, in south Stirlingshire and in some parts of East and Mid Lothian and Fife.
But in the struggle for existence it chanced that the early English invaders secured a kingdom, Bernicia, which stretched from the Humber into Lothian, or farther north, as the fortune of battle might at various times determine; and thus, from the centre to the south-east of what is now Scotland, the people had come to be anglicized in speech before the Norman Conquest, though Gaelic survived much later in Galloway.
Each submission " held not long," and the practical result was that (945) Malcolm acquired northern Strathclyde, " Cumberland, Galloway (?) and other districts," while another Malcolm (1018) took Lothian, the northern part of Northumbria, after winning a great battle at Carham on the Tweed.
Edgar, before his death, established his brother, Alexander I., as king of Scotland, north of Forth and Clyde, with Edinburgh, which looks as if he considered Forth and Clyde the frontier of what was legally Scotland; while his younger brother, David, as earl, ruled Lothian and Cumbria.
In Lothian the place-names recorded in charters were already, for the most part, English.
Lothian, May 26 1848 and was educated at University College school, London, passing on to University College, whence he subsequently graduated B.Sc. with honours in chemistry in 1868-9, but before doing so he entered his father's works and there invented a method of testing condensers, afterwards widely accepted.
The first hawthorn hedges in Scotland are said to have been planted by soldiers of Cromwell at Inch Buckling Brae in East Lothian and Finlarig in Perthshire.
Latterly five of the bays at the west end had been utilized as the parish church, but in 1873-1875 the 9th marquess of Lothian built a church for the service of the parish, and presented it to the heritors in exchange for the ruined abbey in order to prevent the latter from being injured by modern additions and alterations.
Watts, R.A., of the 8th marquess of Lothian (1832-1870).
William Knox was "simple," not "gentle"- perhaps a prosperous East Lothian peasant.
"A subject born within the same," was the answer of the son of the East Lothian peasant; and the Scottish nobility, while thinking him overbold, refused to find him guilty of any crime, even when, later on, he had "convocated the lieges" to Edinburgh to meet a crown prosecution.
He entered the Congregational ministry and held pastorates at Bathgate, West Lothian and at Aberdeen.
On his father's death he had been offered a living by a relative, Sir Alexander Burnet, and in 1863 the living of Saltoun, East Lothian, had been kept open for him by one of his father's friends.
(For early history see Lothian; Northumbria; Strathclyde.) In the 12th century were founded the abbeys of Hexham and Alnwick, the priory church of Lindisfarne and the cathedral of Carlisle on the English side, and on the Scottish the abbeys of Jedburgh, Kelso, Melrose and Dryburgh.
Yet even under such conditions Bruce had to retire to the mountains, and to allow the invaders to range unopposed through Lothian and Fife, and even beyond the Tay.
Unfortunately for himself he made the mistake of requiring too much from Baliolforcing him to cede Lothian, Tweeddale and the larger part of Galloway, and to promise a tribute.
The one weak point in his policy that can be detected is that he left in the hands of Malcolm the Bernician district of Lothian, which the Scot had conquered during the anarchy that followed the death of ~thelred.
In 1748 the synods of Glasgow, Perth and Lothian passed vain resolutions intended to exclude him from churches; in 1753 he compiled his hymn-book, and in 1756 opened the chapel which still bears his name in Tottenham Court Road.
The Cheviot takes its name from the range of hills stretching along the boundary between England and Scotland, on both sides of which the breed now extends, though larger types are produced in East Lothian and in Sutherlandshire.