Four duchies, Brabant, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg; seven counties, Flanders, Artois, Hainault, Holland, Zeeland, Namur and Zutphen; the margraviate of Antwerp; and five lordships - Friesland, Mechlin, Utrecht, Overyssel, and Groningen with its dependent districts.
(1195-1227), was granted the lordship of the town of Clermont, which subsequently became a countship. Such was the origin of the four great historic lordships of Auvergne.
Among other places of interest are Rynsburg, the site of a convent for nobles founded in 1133 and destroyed in the time of Spanish rule; Voorschoten; Wassenaar, all of which were formerly minor lordships; Loosduinen, probably the Lugdunum of the Romans, and the seat of a Cistercian abbey destroyed in 1579; Naaldwyk, an ancient lordship; and 's Gravenzande, which possessed a palace of the counts of Holland in the 12th century, when it was a harbour on the Maas.
In order to consolidate his possessions still further, now that French success seemed assured, the pope determined to deal drastically with Romagna, which although nominally under papal rule was divided up into a number of practically independent lordships on which Venice, Milan and Florance cast hungry eyes.
The only seignories of any importance at present are the lordships of manors.
The authority of the Advertisements, indeed, was and is disputed; but their lordships in their judgment pointed out that they were accepted as authoritative by the canons of 1603 (Can.
Lands and lordships thus bestowed constituted the appanages, which interfered so greatly with the formation of ancient France.
On the well-wooded fringe of the dunes on the west side of the island are the two villages of Renesse and Haamstede, the seats in former days of the two powerful lordships of the same name.
It is formed out of the former lordships of Dachstuhl and Oberstein, of part of the ancient countship of Sponheim, and sections of the duchy of Jiilich, which were granted to the grand-duke of Oldenburg by the congress of Vienna in 1815.
By his father's will he inherited the four lordships of Crepy, La Ferte - Milon, Pierrefonds and Bethisy, which together formed the coantship of Valois.
This name is modern and is a collective appellation for the various counties or lordships in the region which the Habsburgs (after they secured Tirol in 1363) succeeded in purchasing or acquiring - Feldkirch (1375, but Hohenems in 1765 only), Bludenz with the Montafon valley (1394), Bregenz (in two parts, 1451 and 1523) and Sonnenberg (14s5).
After the annexation of Hohenems (its lords having become extinct in 1759), Maria Theresa united all these lordships into an administrative district of Hither Austria, under the name Vorarlberg, the governor residing at Bregenz.
So great an accession of strength to a neighbouring state, whose ambition she had so recently had just reason to fear, was intolerable to Austria, which laid claim to a number of lordships - forming one-third of the whole Bavarian inheritance - as lapsed fiefs of the Bohemian, Austrian, and imperial crowns.
In the war of 1805, in accordance with a treaty of alliance signed at Wurzburg on the 23rd of September, Bavarian troops, for the first time since Charles VII., fought side by side with the French, and by the treaty of Pressburg, signed on the 26th of December, the principality of Eichstadt, the margraviate of Burgau, the lordship of Vorarlberg, the countships of Hohenems and Konigsegg-Rothenfels, the lordships of Argen and Tetnang, and the city of Lindau with its territory were to be added to Bavaria.
The present Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1815 out of the duchies of Cleves, Berg, Gelderland and Jiilich, the ecclesiastical principalities of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne, and nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.
In 1536 it was grouped with a whole series of petty lordships marcher and the lordship of Builth to form the county of Brecknock with Brecon as the county town, and the place for holding the county court.
From the towns, from the counties as wholes, and from many of its ancient lordships, the crown was entitled to archaic dues in kind, such as honey.
242-244; " It resteth therefore that, without fig-leaves, I do ingenuously confess and acknowledge, that having understood the particulars of the charge, not formally from the House but enough to inform my conscience and memory, I find matter sufficient and full, both to move me to desert the defence, and to move your lordships to condemn and censure me."
244: " Neither will your lordships forget that there he was well aware that the practice was in itself indefensible,4 and that his conduct was therefore corrupt and deserving of censure.
At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.
The Hundred Rolls and the Placita de quo warranto show that important jurisdiction had accrued to the great over-lordships, such as those of Beauchamp, Wahull and Caynho, and to several religious houses, the prior of St John of Jerusalem claiming rights in more than fifty places in the county.
Peter the Cruel had endowed them with the lordships of Hita and Buitrago.
Only in two cases did William establish lordships of compact strength, and these were created for the special purpose of guarding the turbulent Welsh March.
For the next two centuries and a half the lands west of Dee and Wye were divided between the new counties, forming the principality of Wales, and the marches where the old feudal franchises continued, till the marcher-lordships gradually fell by forfeiture or marriage to the crown.
Louis XI., who had joined his troops to those of the princes of Anjou, attached Boffille to his own person, made him his chamberlain and conferred on him the vice-royalty of Roussillon and Cerdagne (1471), together with certain important lordships, among others the countship of Castres, confiscated from James of Armagnac, duke of Nemours (1476), and the temporalities of the bishopric of Castres, confiscated from John of Armagnac. He also entrusted him with diplomatic negotiations with Flanders and England.
The new dynasty was thus the poorest and weakest of the great civil and ecclesiastical lordships which occupied the country from the estuary of the Scheldt to that of the Liobregat, and bounded approximately by the Meuse, the Sane and the ridge of the Cvennes; yet it cherished a great ambition which it revealed at times during its first century (987Ifo8)a determination not to repeat the Carolingian failure.
To the north and east of the kingdom extended a wide territory of uncertain limits; countries without a chief like Alsace; principalities like Lorraine, ecclesiastical lordships like the bishopric of Liege; and, most important of all, a royal appanage, that of the duchy of Burgundy, ~ndy.
In the course of the, 4th century the country was in a state of anarchy; petty lordships sprang into existence, the interests of the common weal were forgotten or disregarded, and the people began to be split up into factions, and these were continually carrying on petty warfare with one another.
In 1641 threw off the supremacy of Spain and placed himself under the protectorate of France; he was compensated for the loss of Canosa, &c., with the duchy and peerage of Valentinois and various lesser lordships; and "duke of Valentinois" long continued to be the title of the heir-apparent of the principality.
Behetrias, called plebeian lordships, were districts and townships of peasants who were bound to have a lord, and to make him payments in money or in kind, but who had a varying freedom of choice in electing their lord.
This independence was enhanced by the fact that few great nobles had followed Albert the Bear in his work of conquest, and that consequently there were few large lordships with their crowd of dependents.