But the arrogance which she displayed in her prosperity alienated the Londoners and the papal legate, Bishop Henry of Winchester.
No doubt the coming of the Saxons, which entirely changed the condition of the country, must have greatly injured trade, but although there was not the same freedom of access to the roads, the Londoners had the highway of the river at their doors.
He holds that the Londoners passed " their own laws by their own citizens without reference to the king at all," and in the present case of a king who according to Kemble " had carried the influence of the crown to an extent unexampled in any of his predecessors."
He adds: " What happened afterwards was evidently this: that the code passed by the Londoners was sent to the king for him to extend its application throughout the kingdom, and this is done by the eleventh section."
" The Christianity of the Londoners was of an unsatisfactory character, for, after the death of Sebert, his sons who were heathens stirred up the multitude to drive out their bishop. Mellitus became archbishop of Canterbury, and London relapsed into heathenism.
In 896 the Londoners came off victorious in their encounters with the Danes.
The Londoners broke up some, and brought the strongest and best to London.
The Londoners withstood Sweyn in 1013, but in the end they submitted and gave him hostages.
In this reign the all-powerfulness of the Londoners is brought prominently forward.
The Londoners were the more glad to welcome Richard back in that the head of the regency, Longchamp, bishop of Ely, was very unpopular from the encroachments he made upon the city with his works at the Tower.
Londoners frequented the river, which was their great highway.
The great meeting-place of Londoners in the day-time was the nave of old St Paul's.
In spite of this the 18th century produced some of the most devoted of Londoners - men who considered a day lived out of London as one lost out of their lives.
The remarkable instance of this after the Conquest was the election of Stephen, but William the Conqueror did not feel secure until he had the sanction of the Londoners to his kingship, and his attitude towards London when he hovered about the neighbourhood of the city for a time shows that he was anxious to obtain this sanction freely rather than by compulsion.
Londoners were well informed as to what was going on abroad, and although the rulers were always willing to wait for an opportunity of enlarging their liberties, they remained ready to take advantage of such circumstances as might occur.
The latter bitterly offended the Londoners, who, finding that they could turn the scales to either side, named the Commune as the price of their support of John.
He then became associated with Henry of Lancaster, but did not return to England before 1399, and the account which Froissart gives telling how he was sent by the Londoners to urge Henry to come and assume the crown is thought to refer to his nephew and namesake, Thomas, earl of Arundel.
He was disliked by the citizens of London; and this ill-feeling was heightened when Gloucester, who was a favourite of the Londoners, returned to England and was doubtless reproached by Beaufort for the folly of his undertaking.
The conflict over the trial led to a violent quarrel with the Londoners, and a riot in the city during which John was in danger of his life from the angry citizens.
He picked a quarrel with the unpopular chancellor William Longchamp, and succeeded, by the help of the barons and the Londoners, in expelling this minister, whose chief fault was that of fidelity to the absent Richard.
We must not suppose that when the city of London obtained the privilege of appointing a mayor, and a citizen could boast in 1194 that " come what may the Londoners shall have no king but their mayor," that the king did not occasionally exert his power in suspending the liberties of the city.