For this latter purpose he had chosen as his thesis the constitution of the free Lombard cities in the middle ages, the province in which he was destined to do most for the scientific study of history.
Parma, one of the finest cities of northern Italy, lies in a fertile tract of the Lombard plain, within view of the Alps and sheltered by the Apennines, 170 ft.
It fell into the power of Alboin in 569 and became the seat of a Lombard duchy; it was still one of the wealthiest cities of Aemilia in the Lombard period.
Its bishop Cadalus (1046-1071) was elected to the papacy by the Lombard and German bishops in 1061, and marched on Rome, but was driven back by the partisans of Alexander III.
It was first employed by the Milanese in 1038, and played a great part in the wars of the Lombard league against the emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
It was discussed in the 12th century whether this sacrament is indelible like baptism, or whether it can be repeated; and the latter view, that of Peter Lombard, prevailed.
Not long after it had been sacked by Totila Benevento became the seat of a powerful Lombard duchy and continued to be independent until 1053, when the emperor Henry III.
Sofia, a circular edifice of about 760, now modernized, the roof of which is supported by six ancient columns, is a relic of the Lombard period; it has a fine cloister of the 12th century constructed in part of fragments of earlier buildings; while the cathedral with its fine arcaded facade and incomplete square campanile (begun in 1279) dates from the 9th century and was rebuilt in 1114.
In the Lombard period it is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia.
Gothic and Lombard Kingdoms. 27.3.2 II.
With the exception of a few subAlpine districts near Bergamo and Brescia, the great Lombard plain is decidedly unpastoral.
In some of the Lombard mezzadria contracts taxes are paid by the cultivator.
Narses had employed Lombard auxiliaries in his, campaigns against the The Goths; and when he was recalled by ~n insulting Lombards.
After this event, the semi-independent chiefs of the Lombard tribe, who borrowed the title of dukes from their Roman predecessors, seem to have been contented with consolidating their power in the districts each had occupied.
Three separate capitals must be discriminated Pavia, the seat of the new Lombard kingdom; Ravenna, the garrison city of the Byzantine emperor; and Rome, the rallying point of the old nation, where the successor of St Peter was already beginning to assume that national protectorate which proved so influential in the future.
It is not necessary to write the history of the Lombard kingdom in detail.
Allied himself with Liudprand, the Lombard king, threw off allegiance to Byzantium, and established the autonomy of Rome.
Law Desiderius, the last Lombard king, in 774, and when he received the circlet of the empire from Leo Ill, at Rome ~fl 800, he did but complete and ratify the compact offered to his grandfather, Charles Martel, by Gregory III.
It should also here be noticed that the changes introduced into the holding of the fiefs, whether by altering their boundaries or substituting Frankish for Lombard vassals, were chief among the causes why the feudal system took no permanent hold in Italy.
It is here, at the Heribert present epoch and for the next two centuries, that the and the pith and nerve of the Italian nation must be sought; Lombard and among the burghs of Lombardy, Milan, the eldest burghs.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
Some Norman adventurers, on pilgrimage to St Michaels shrine on Monte Gargano, lent their swords in 1017 to the Lombard cities of Apulia against the Greeks.
The rise of the Lombard communes produced a sympathetic revolution in Rome, which deserves to be mentioned in this place.
Though these institutions borrowed high-sounding titles from antiquity, they wen in reality imitations of the Lombard civic system.
Frederick immediately B~barossa determined to reassert the imperial rights in his and the southern provinces, and to check the warfare of the Lombard burghs.
He laid waste Chieri, Asti and Tortona, then took the Lombard crown at Pavia, and, reserving Milan for a future day, passed southward to Rome.
Frederick placed judges of his own appointment, with the title of podest, in all the Lombard commu1ies; and this stretch of his authority, while it exacerbated his foes, forced even his friends to join their ranks against him.
The famous league of Lombard cities, styled Concordia in its acts of settlement, was now established.
Frederick fled for Lombard his life by the Mont Cenis, and in 1168 the town of Alessandria was erected to keep Pavia and the marquisate in check.
Here, as upon neutral ground, the emperor met the pope, and a truce for six years was concluded with the Lombard burghs.
Looking back from the vantage-ground of history upon the issue of this long struggle, we are struck with the small results which satisfied the Lombard communes.
The privileges confirmed to the Lombard cities by the peace of Constance were extended to Tuscany, where Florence, having War of ruined Fiesole, had begun her career of freedom and clues prosperity.
Henry established imperial vicars in the Lombard towns, confirming the tyrants, but gaining nothing for the empire in exchange for the titles he conferred.
Can Grande della Scalas death in the next year inflicted on, the Lombard Ghibellines a loss hardly inferior to that of Castruccios on their Tuscan allies.
The Viscontis own generals, Facino Cane, Pandolfo Malatesta, Jacopo dal Verme, Gabrino Fondulo, Ottobon Terzo, seized upon the tyranny of several Lombard cities.
He subsequently spent a long, suspicious, secret and incomprehensible career in the attempt to piece together Gian Galeazzos Lombard state, and to carry out his schemes of Italian conquest.
The republic of Venice was respected in her liberties and Lombard territories.
Milan was the terminus of the road, and the construction of the Foro Buonaparte and the completion of the cathedral added dignity to the Lombard capital.
His forces amounted to 80,000 men, including a Lombard corps and some Roman, Tuscan and other volunteers.
But the young king was determined to abide by his fathers oath, and had therefore to agree to an Austrian occupation of the territory between the P0, the Ticino and, the Sesia, and of half the citadel of Alessandria, until peace should be concluded, the evacuation of all districts occupied by his troops outside Piedmont, the dissolution of his corps of Lombard, Polish and Hungarian volunteers and the withdrawal of his fleet from the Adriatic.
The king declared himself ready to go to war again if those compromised in the Lombard revolution were not freely pardoned, and at last Austria agreed to amnesty all save a very few, and in August the peace terms were agreed upon.
The Lombard republicans had been greatly weakened by the events of 1848, but Mazzini still believed that a bold act by a few revolutionists would make the people rise en masse and expel the Austrians.
Radetzky, not satisfied with this, laid an embargo on the property of many Lombard emigrants who had settled in Piedmont and become naturalized, accusing them of complicity.
The Lombard campaign had produced important effects throughout the rest of Italy.
Upon the fall of the Saracco cabinet (9th February 1901) Visconti Venosta was succeeded at the foreign office by Signor Prinetti, a Lombard manufacturer of strong temperament, but without previous diplomatic experience.
This Norman form of Romanesque most likely had its origin in the Lombard buildings of northern Italy.
LIUDPRAND (LIUTPRAND, LUITPRAND) (c. 922-972), Italian historian and author, bishop of Cremona, was born towards the beginning of the 10th century, of a good Lombard family.
The livings of Great Baddow, Essex, and of Wokey, Somerset, which he had received in 1546, and was presented in 1552 by the dean and chapter of Canterbury to the rectory of All Hallows, Lombard Street, London.
Freeman, on account of the Romanesque character of the architecture, thought it probable that it really belongs to the time of the Lombard kings, and his opinion is shared by Ricci and Rivoira, who consider it to be a guardhouse erected by the exarchs, recent explorations having made it clear that it was an addition to the palace, while mosaic pavements and an atrium once surrounded by arcades really belonging to the latter were found in 1870 behind S.
In 728 the Lombard king Luitprand took and destroyed the suburb Classis; about 752 the city itself fell into the hands of his successor Aistulf, from whom a few years after it was wrested by Pippin, king of the Franks.
In height, square and built of brickwork, and is one of the finest of Lombard campanili.
At the head of the Adriatic, between the mountains and the sea, lies that part of the Lombard plain known as the Veneto.
There can be no doubt that Byzantine artists had a large share in the work, but it is equally certain that Lombard workmen were employed along with the Orientals, and thus St Mark's became, as it were, a workshop in which twd styles, Byzantine and Lombard, met and were fused together, giving birth to a new style, peculiar to the district, which may fairly be called Veneto-Byzantine.
It has small angle-windows to light the interior inclined plane or staircase, and is not broken into storeys with grouped windows as in the case of the Lombard bell-towers.
In 1180 they were set up with their present fine capitals and bases by a Lombard engineer, Niccolo de' Barattieri.
Now here is a Lombard bond and a letter; it is a premium for the man who writes a history of Suvorov's wars.