Districts, as well as the greater part of the Sierra Alta, are destitute of large trees; but the coast-lands on both sides towards Tabasco and British Honduras enjoy a sufficient rainfall to support forests containing the mahogany tree, several valuable cabinet woods, vanilla, logwood and other dye-woods.
Logwood forests fringe all the lagoons and many parts of the seaboard, which are flooded during the rainy season.
Then, too, there are various dyewoods; rosewood, logwood (or campeachy wood), indigo, manaju (Garcinia Morella), Brazil-wood and saffron.
The exports are mahogany, rosewood, cedar, logwood and other cabinet-woods and dye-woods, with cocoanuts, sugar, sarsaparilla, tortoiseshell, deerskins, turtles and fruit, especially bananas.
Local tradition connects the name with that of Wallis or Wallace, a Scottish buccaneer, who, in 1638, settled, with a party of logwood cutters, on St George's Cay, a small island off the town.
The natural and forest products of Mexico include the agave and yucca (ixtle) fibres already mentioned; the " ceibon " fibre derived from the silk-cotton tree (Bombax pentandria); rubber and vanilla in addition to the cultivated products; palm oil; castor beans; ginger; chicle, the gum extracted from the " chico-zapote " tree (Achras sapota); logwood and other dye-woods; mahogany, rosewood, ebony, cedar and other valuable woods; " cascalote " or divi-divi; jalap root (Ipomaea); sarsaparilla (Smilax); nuts and fruits.
Chief exports are coal, stone, woollen goods and machinery; imports, butter, fruit, indigo, logwood, timber and wool.
Guanaja was discovered in 1502 by Columbus, but the islands were not colonized until the 17th century, when they were occupied by British logwood cutters from Belize, and pearlers from the Mosquito Coast.
The soil is generally dry and stony, and the greater part of the surface is covered with forests, in which the logwood tree especially abounds.
The trade is chiefly with the United States, and the main exports are sugar, molasses, logwood, tamarinds, turtles, and pineapples.
It had a monopoly of the Yucatan trade and enjoyed large profits from its logwood exports, both of which have been largely lost.
It was formerly the principal port for the state and for a part of Yucatan, but the port of Carmen at the entrance to Laguna de Terminos is now the chief shipping port for logwood and other forest products, and a considerable part of the trade of Campeche has been transferred to Progreso, the port of Merida.
The exports include logwood, cotton, hides, wax, tobacco, salt and cigars of local manufacture.
- Tannic acid is present in small quantities in the great majority of plants, but in notable quantity in gall-nuts, oak bark, bearberry leaves, rhatany root, catechu, kino, red gum, bael fruit, logwood and witch hazel, all of which are largely used as medicines.