The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
The principal centre is Lodz in the government of Piotrkow, the staple industry being cottons.
At Lodz alone the workmen, in great part Germans and Jews, number between 50,000 and 60,000, and the total output of the factories is estimated at £9,000,000 to £10,500,000 annually.
Of the towns of Poland 32 have a population each exceeding 10,000, the largest being Warsaw the capital, with 638,208 inhabitants in 1897 and 756,426 in 1901; Lodz, with 315,209 in 1897 and 35 1, 57 0 in 1900; Czenstochowa, with 45,130 in 1897 and 53,650 in 1900; and Lublin, with 50,152 in 1897.
The principal industrial centres are Lodz (textiles), Warsaw (sugar, leather and miscellaneous) and Bendzin - Sosnowice - Dombrowa, in Piotrkow (mining).
Cotton is the principal product of the mills at Lodz and Lask, both in Piotrkow; though woollen cloth, silk and linen are also produced.
The Lodz manufacturing district, the Polish Birmingham, is becoming more German than Polish; and throughout the governments west of the Vistula German immigration is going on at a steadily increasing rate, especially in the governments of Plock, Kalisz, Piotrkow and Warsaw.