Some American locomotives are very heavy.
Railway and marine locomotives are not included.
Long, from Carbondale to Honesdale, Pennsylvania, Horatio Allen ordered three locomotives from Messrs Foster & Rastrick, of Stourbridge, and one from George Stephenson.
Great progress has been made in the manufacture of machinery; locomotives, railway carriages, electric tram-cars, &c., and machinery of all kinds, are now largely made in Italy itself, especially in the north and in the neighborhood of Naples.
The example of the Stockton & Darlington line was followed by the Monklands railway in Scotland, opened in 1826, and several other small lines - including the Canterbury & Whitstable, worked partly by fixed engines and partly by locomotives - quickly adopted steam traction.
Miller, delivered to the South Carolina railroad in 1834, presented a feature which has remained characteristic of American locomotives - the front part was supported on a four-wheeled swivelling bogie-truck, a device, however, which had been applied to Puffing Billy in England when it was rebuilt in 1815.
The number of locomotives increased 12,407, or 35%, and the number of freight cars, 545,222, or 42%.
There are certain fundamental relations common to all tractive problems, and these are briefly considered in §§ i and 2, after which the article refers particularly to steam locomotives, although §§ 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 have a general application to all modes of traction.
A complete account of Webb's engines will be found in a paper, " The Compound Principle applied to Locomotives," by E.
It is not possible to do anything better with two-cylinder locomotives unless bobweights be added, but with four-cylinder four-crank engines complete balance is possible both in the vertical and in the horizontal directions.
The speed at which the journey has to be completed is obviously another important factor, though the increased power of modern locomotives permits trains to be heavier and at the same time to run as fast, and often faster, than was formerly possible, and in consequence the general tendency is towards increased weight as well as increased speed.
Dalby, " The Economical Working of Locomotives," Proc. Inst.
Compound locomotives have been built by various designers, but opinion is still uncertain whether any commercial economy is obtained by their use.
Locomotives have to start with the full load on the engine, consequently an outstanding feature of every compound locomotive is the apparatus or mechanism added to enable the engine to start readily.
The manufactures of machinery, especially locomotives and railway plant, chemicals, and hardware are also important.
The relation between the b.h.p. and the torque on the driving-axle is 55 o B.H.P. =Tu., (9) It is usual with steam locomotives to regard the resistance R as including the frictional resistances between the cylinders and the driving-axle, so that the rate at which energy is expended in moving the train is expressed either by the product RV, or by the value of the indicated horse-power, the relation between them being 55 0 I.H.P. =RV (Io) or in terms of the torque 55 0 I.H.P.X€=RVe=TW (II) The individual factors of the product RV may have any value consistent with equation (to) and with certain practical conditions, so that for a given value of the I.H.P. R must decrease if V increases.
The principal condition operating in the design of locomotives intended for local services with frequent stops is the degree of acceleration required, the aim of the designer being to produce an engine which shall be able to bring the train to its journey speed in the shortest time possible.
Compound locomotives have been tried, as stated in § 17, but the tendency in England is to revert to the simple engine for all classes of work, though on the continent of Europe and in America the compound locomotive is largely adopted, and is doing excellent work.
A current development is the application of superheaters to locomotives, and the results obtained with them are exceedingly promising.
The superiority, so far as the convenience of passengers is concerned, of an elevated over an underground railway, when both are worked by steam locomotives, and the great economy and rapidity of construction, led to the quick development and extension of this general design.
Its promoters recognized the unsuitability of ordinary steam locomotives for underground railways, and intended to work it by means of a moving cable; but before it was completed, electric traction had developed so far as to be available for use on such lines.
In addition to the industries connected with the shipping, large numbers of hands are employed in the government railway works, where the locomotives and rolling stock used by the state railways are manufactured.
By the Highways and Locomotives Act of 1878 disturnpiked roads became "main roads."
The excavated material is brought to the hoisting shaft, or sometimes directly to the surface, in small mine cars, moved by men or by animals, or by locomotives or wire-rope haulage.
Steam locomotives have been largely superseded by compressed air or electric locomotives.
Compressed air locomotives are provided with cylindrical FIG.
Electric locomotives usually work on the trolley system, though a few storage battery locomotives have been successfully employed.
Electric and compressed air locomotives are durable, easily operated, and can be built to run under the low roofs of thin veins.
Electric locomotives are in general more economical then either steam or compressed air.
They also construct carriages, wagons and locomotives, and they may therefore be said to have become entirely independent in the matter of railways, for a government iron-foundry at Wakamatsu in Kishifl is able to manufacture steel rails.
Among the manufactures are brass and copper work, wire for electrical uses, foundry and machine-shop products, locomotives, knit goods, tin cans and canned goods (especially vegetables).
In mines that are worked from the outcrop by adits or day levels traction by locomotives driven by steam, compressed air or electricity is used to some extent.
The industries of Konigsberg have made great advances within recent years, notable among them are printing-works and manufactures of machinery, locomotives, carriages, chemicals, toys, sugar, cellulose, beer, tobacco and cigars, pianos and amber wares.
Iron war-ships, railway locomotives, iron bridges, machinery, &c., are built; the company has branches in Norrkoping, Gothenburg, and elsewhere.
Among Davenport's manufactures are the products of foundries and machine shops, and of flouring, grist and planing mills; glucose syrup and products; locomotives, steel cars and car parts, washing machines, waggons, carriages, agricultural implements, buttons, macaroni, crackers and brooms. The value of the total factory product for 1905 was $13,695,978, an increase of 38.7% over that of 1900.
At that time locomotives on railways of 4 ft.
Widnes is one of the principal seats of the alkali and soap manufacture, and has also grease-works for locomotives and waggons, copper works, iron-foundries, oil and paint works and sail-cloth manufactories.
The leading dimensions of a few locomotives typical of English, American and European practice are given in Table Xxii.
In the operation of intra-urban railwa y s, steam locomotives, cables and electricity have severally been tried: the first having been used in the earlier examples of underground lines and in the various elevated systems in the United States.
Gauge, and laid with rails weighing from 50 to 70 lb per yard; a flat-footed 60 lb rail, with the axle load limited to 14 tons, has the advantage for such lines that it permits the employment of a proportion of the locomotives used on main lines.
Light locomotives, light rails and light rolling stock are employed.
4.85 in.); locomotives, maximum weight per axle 6 tons, rigid wheel base 1 .
The Light Railways Act and the Locomotives on Highways Act were added to the statute book in 1896, and various clauses in the Finance Act effected reforms in respect of the death duties, the land-tax, farmers' income-tax and the beer duty.
The use of locomotives, motor cars and other vehicles on highways is regulated by acts of 1861-1903.
This difference is explained by the facts that the state lines having been the pioneers, portions of them were built before experience had indicated cheap methods; that a very large and costly foreign staff was employed on these roads in the early days, whereas no such item appeared in the accounts of private lines; that extensive works for the building of locomotives and rolling stock are connected with the governments roads, and that it fell to the lot of the state to undertake lines in districts presenting exceptional engineering difficulties, such districts being naturally avoided by private companies.
Machinery of all kinds is produced, from the sewing-machines of Dresden to the steam-locomotives and marine-engines of Chemnitz.
Hence many of the earlier bridges have had to be strengthened to carry modern traffic. The following examples of some of the heaviest locomotives on English railways is given by W.
The construction of locomotives and machinery, carried on by the Societe Alsacienne, wire-drawing, and the spinning and weaving of cotton are included among its industries, which together with the population increased greatly owing to the Alsacian immigration after 1871.
These, which go down to depths of 700 to 1700 ft., yield crude naphtha, from which the petroleum or kerosene is distilled; while the heavier residue (mazut) is used as lubricating oil and for fuel, for instance in the locomotives of the Transcaspian railway.
In 1905 the twelve leading manufactures, with the value of each, were: steel and malleable iron, $363,773,577; foundry and machineshop products, consisting most largely of steam locomotives, metalworking machinery and pumping machinery, $119,650,913; pigiron, $107,455,267; leather, $69,427,852; railway cars and repairs by steam railway companies, $61,021,374; refined petroleum, $47,459,5 02; silk and silk goods, $39,333,520; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $39,079,122; flour and grist-mill products, $38,518,702; refined sugar and molasses, $37,182,504; worsted goods, $35,683,015; and malt liquors, $34,863,823.
Within its limits, in 1905, all the sugar and molasses were manufactured and much of the petroleum was refined, nearly all of the iron and steel ships and steam locomotives were built, and 93% of the carpets and rugs were made, and the total value of the manufactures of this city in that year was nearly one-third of that for the entire state.
Machine-making on a large scale is carried on by firms widely celebrated for the construction of locomotives, railway trucks and carriages, steamboilers and motors, turbines, pumps, metal bridges and roofs.
The main centres of the hardware industry are Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg and Furth; the two first especially for locomotives and automobiles, the last for tinfoil and metal toys.
Czechoslovakia manufactures and exports agricultural machinery, plant for sugar refineries and distilleries, locomotives, railway carriages and trucks and other rolling-stock, motor-cars, tractors.
The manufacture of lumber and timber gave employment to the largest total number of workers; and this industry, together with those of foundry and machine shops (including locomotives, stoves and furnaces), cotton goods (including small wares), railway car and repair shops, and iron and steel, were (in order) the five greatest employers of labor.
They include worsted spinning mills; collieries, ironstone mines, quarries and brickworks; the manufacture of iron and steel, both in the rough and in the form of finished articles, as locomotives, bridge castings, ships' engines, gun castings and shells, &c. The parliamentary borough returns one member.