Seized by the invaders, castle and town were later retaken in 1231 by Prince Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, who burned the fortress and slew its garrison.
It was only the alliance of Montfort with Llewelyn of North Wales that brought the earl of Hereford back to his allegiance.
Another castle, built in the same century, on the east bank, was held direct by the lords of Glamorgan, as the westernmost outpost of their lordship. It was frequently attacked by the Welsh, notably in 1231 when it was taken, and the town demolished by Llewelyn ab Iorwerth.
At first he was a friend of King John, whose illegitimate daughter, Joanna, he took to wife (1201); but the alliance soon fell through, and in 1211 John reduced Llewelyn to submission.
In the next year Llewelyn recovered all his losses in North Wales.
Ab Gruffydd Llewelyn II >>
Retaken by Gwenwynwyn in 1197, it was dismantled by Llewelyn, prince of N.
Meanwhile Aquitaine was gradually lost; the defeat of Pembroke off La Rochelle deprived England of the command of the sea, and Sir Owen ap Thomas, a grand-nephew of Llewelyn ab Gruffyd, planned, with French help, an abortive invasion of Wales.
John had also two illegitimate sons, Richard and Oliver, and a daughter, Joan or Joanna, who married Llewelyn I.
The borough was incorporated by Henry III., when the castle was enlarged, and was the scene of frequent contests between that king and Llewelyn the Great.
The steady encroachment of royal officers on Llewelyn's land began immediately, and in 1256 Llewelyn declared war.
Llewelyn also assisted the barons.
Llewelyn refused to do homage to Edward I., who therefore attacked him in 1276.
He married Maud, heiress of Hugh, earl of Chester, and his son John inherited both earldoms. The son married Helen, daughter of Llewelyn, prince of Wales, by whom he was poisoned in 1237, dying without issue.
Spencer, has versified the tale of Llewelyn, king of Wales, leaving Gelert and the baby prince at home, returning to find Gelert stained with,the blood of a wolf, and killing the hound because he thought his child was slain.
Another version is the medieval romance in The Seven Wise Masters of In the edition printed by Wynkyn de Worde it is told by "the first master" - a knight had one son, a greyhound and a falcon; the knight went to a tourney, a snake attacked the son, the falcon roused the hound, which killed the serpent, lay down by the cradle, and was killed by the knight, who discovered his error, like Llewelyn, and similarly repented (Villon Society, British Museum reprint, by Gomme and Wheatley).
The Irfon valley, near Builth, was, however, the scene of the last struggle between the English and Llewelyn, who in 1282 fell in a petty skirmish in that district.
Historically, David (Dafydd), brother of the last Llewelyn, was here (aet.
Some degree of peace was, however, given to the distracted country during the reign of Llewelyn ap Seissyllt, the husband of Angharad, heiress of Gwynedd, who at length secured the overlordship or sovereignty of all Wales, and reigned till 1022.
The prince of Gwynedd henceforth considered himself as a sovereign, independent, but owing a personal allegiance to the king of England, and it was to obtain a recognition of his rights as such that Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, " the Great," consistently strove under three English kings, and though his resources were small, it seemed for a time as though he might be able by uniting his countrymen to place the recognized autonomy of Gwynedd on a firm and enduring basis.
Innocent was inclined to temporize, whilst the Welsh chieftains, and especially Gwenwynwyn of Powys, loudly applauded Gerald's action, but Llewelyn ap Iorwerth himself prudently held aloof from the controversy.
In 1238 Llewelyn, growing aged and infirm, summoned all his vassals to a conference at the famous Cistercian abbey of Strata Florida, whereat David, his son by the Princess Joan of England, was acknowledged his heir by all present.
Two years later Llewelyn, the ablest and most successful of all the Welsh princes, expired and was buried in the monastery of his own foundation at Aberconway.
Of Griffith's three sons, Owen, Llewelyn and David, the most popular and influential was undoubtedly Llewelyn, whose deeds and qualities were celebrated in extravagant terms by the bards of his own day, and whose evil fate has ever been a favourite theme of Welsh poets.
Nevertheless, the hostile policy of Llewelyn, who had closely associated himself with the cause of Simon de Montfort and the barons, was at first successful.
Llewelyn was, however, foolish enough to lose the results of this very favourable treaty by intriguing with the de Montfort family, and in 1273 he became betrothed to Eleanor de Montfort, the old Earl's only daughter, a piece of political folly which may possibly in some degree account for Edward's harsh treatment of the Welsh prince.
In 1274 Llewelyn refused to attend at Edward's coronation, although the Scottish king was present.
In 1276 Edward entered Wales from Chester, and after a short campaign brought his obstinate vassal to submit to the ignominious treaty of Conway, whereby Llewelyn lost almost all the benefits conferred on him by the compact of Montgomery ten years before.
Llewelyn, utterly humbled, now behaved with such prudence that Edward at last sanctioned his marriage with Eleanor de Montfort (although such an alliance must originally have been highly distasteful to the English king), and the ceremony was performed with much pomp in Worcester Cathedral in 1278.
On Palm Sunday 1282, in a time of peace, David suddenly attacked and burnt Hawarden Castle, whereupon all Wales was up in arms. Edward, greatly angered and now bent on putting an end for ever to the independence of the Principality, hastened into Wales; but whilst the king was campaigning in Gwynedd, Prince Llewelyn himself was slain in an obscure skirmish on the 11th of December 1282 at Cefn-ybedd, near Builth on the Wye, whither he had gone to rouse the people of Brycheiniog.
Thus did a Welshman revenge the ignominious deaths of Prince Llewelyn and Prince David by becoming two centuries later king of England and prince of Wales.
The town possesses 103 acres of parks and open spaces, the chief being Llewelyn Park of 42 acres in the north of the town near Morriston, Victoria Park (16 acres) and recreation ground (8 acres) abutting on the sands in the west, with the privately owned football field between them, Cwmdonkin (13 acres) commanding a fine panoramic view of the bay, and Brynmill (9 acres) with a disused reservoir constructed in 1837 and now converted into an ornamental lake.
Mold Castle was probably built by Robert Monthault (temp. William Rufus), was taken and destroyed by Owen Gwynedd in 1144-1145, its site lost to the English and retaken by Llewelyn ap Iowerth in 1201, and by Gruffydd Llwyd in 1322.
In 1220 Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, prince of North Wales, during the absence of William Marshal II., earl of Pembroke, attacked and burnt the suburbs, but failed to reduce the castle by assault.
In the castle Owen Goch (Owen the Red) was imprisoned from 1254 to 1277, by the last Llewelyn, whose brother Dafydd held it for some time against Edward I.
When Simon turned the native Welsh prince Llewelyn against the marcher barops, he gave great offence; he was accused of sacrificing Englishmen to a foreign enemy.
The only unsatisfactory part of the pacificatioI~ was that Llewelyn of Wales, who had ravaged the whole March while he was Montforts ally, was allowed to keep a broad region (the greater part of the modern shire of Denbigh) which he had won back from its English holders.
Llewelyn-ap-Gruffydd, the old ally of de Montfort, had come with profit out of the civil wars of 126366, and having won much land and more influence during the evil days of Henry III., was reluctant to see that his time of prosperity had come to an end, now that a king of a very different character sat on the English throne.
Llewelyn would not deign to appear before him to render the customary homage due from Wales to the English crown, but sent a series of futile excuses lasting over three years.
Llewelyn was pardoned, but deprived of all the lands he had gained during the days of the civil war, and restricted to his old North Welsh dominions.
But his enemies increased in power, and about 1194 he was driven from Wales by the partisans of his half-brother Llewelyn ab Iorwerth.