This change is due to the decline of horseand cattle-rearing in the llanos, partly in consequence of political disturbances and partly of a murrain which broke out in 1843 among horses, mules and asses.
The surface of the llanos is almost a dead level, the general elevation 1 The name means " little Venice," and is a modification of the name of Venecia (Venice), originally bestowed by Alonzo de Ojeda in 1499 on an Indian village, composed of pile dwellings on the shores of the Gulf of Maracaibo, which was called by him the Gulf of Venecia.
(2) The llanos, covered by deposits of Quaternary or late Tertiary age.
On the llanos the dry season destroys the pasturage completely, dries up the small streams and lagoons, and compels many animals of semi-aquatic habits to aestivate.
The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.
The shallow lagoons of the llanos, like those of the Argentine pampas, are favourite fishing grounds for these birds.
The end of the war found the llanos a desert, both herds and herdsmen having nearly disappeared.
The Llanos de Urgel, which comprise the greater part of southern Lerida, are extensive plains forming part of the Ebro valley, but redeemed by an elaborate system of canals from the sterility which characterizes so much of that region in Aragon.
In the extreme south are the Bolivian Chaco and the llanos (open grassy plains) of Manzo, while above these in eastern Chuquisaca and southern Santa Cruz are extensive swamps and low-lying plains, subject to periodical inundations and of little value for agricultural and pastoral purposes.
Between the Chiquitos sierras and the Andes are the Llanos de Chiquitos, which have a higher general elevation and a more diversified surface.
North of this elevation, which formed the southern shore of the ancient Mojos Lake, are the llanos of Guarayos and Mojos, occupying an extensive region traversed by the Guapore, San Miguel, Guapay, Mamore, Yacuma, Beni and Madre de Dios rivers and their numerous tributaries.
Turning to the north in a magnificent curve, it passes around the south-east extremity of the Sierra de Cochabamba, skirts the Llanos de Chiquitos, and, turning to the north-west, unites with the Mamore at Junta de los Rios in about 15° 20' S.
The Jesuit founders of the Mojos missions took cattle with them when they entered that region to labour among the Indians, with the result that the Mojos and Chiquitos llanos were soon well stocked, and have since afforded an unfailing supply of beef for the neighbouring inland markets.
Farther south the llanos of Chuquisaca and Tarija also sustain large herds of cattle on the more elevated districts, and on the well-watered plains of the Chaco.
The Llanos 1 A priory of the Maltese knights of St John of Jerusalem.
Nearly one half its area lies south-east of the Andes and consists of extensive llanos and forested plains, traversed by several of the western tributaries of the Amazon and Orinoco.
South of Bogota, and flows with a slight southward curve across the llanos to the Orinoco, into which it discharges at San Fernando de Atabapo in lat.
The Meta rises on the opposite side of the Cordillera from Bogota, and flows with a sluggish current east-north-east across the llanos to the Orinoco, into which it discharges below the Atures rapids, in lat.
Farther north, on the open llanos of the Orinoco tributaries, the year is divided into equal parts, an alternating wet and dry season, the sun temperatures being high followed by cool nights, and the temperatures of the rainy season being even higher.
These lowland plains and valleys comprise the climatic tropical zone of Colombia, which is characterized by high temperatures, and by excessive humidity and dense forests, an exception to the last-named characteristic being the open llanos where dry summers prevail.
On the forested slopes to 90° and 91° on the llanos of the Meta and Arauca.
These plains include the extensive llanos of the Orinoco tributaries where coarse, hardy grasses and occasional clumps of palms are almost the only vegetation to be seen.
The "Llanos de Mojos," famous for their flourishing Jesuit mission settlements of the 17th and 18th centuries, occupy the eastern part of this department and are still inhabited by an industrious peaceful native population, devoted to cattle raising and primitive methods of agriculture.
Of Llanos and 150 m.
Above these they are less regular and are attracted northward by the heated llanos of Venezuela in winter, or southward by the heated campos of Matto Grosso in summer.
Between the Bolivian and Venezuelan llanos, and thus far civilization has made only a very slight 'impression upon it.
Its Brazilian tributaries are comparatively unimportant, but from Bolivia it receives the Baures and the San Miguel, both rising in the Sierras de Chiquitos and flowing north-west across the llanos to the Guapore.
The latter is known as the llanos of the Orinoco, a region described by Humboldt as a vast " sea of grass," with islands of wood scattered here and there.
Appun's visit in 1850 trees seem still to have been comparatively rare; but a different aspect was presented when Dr P. Jonas visited the llanos in 1878.
The llanos have some distinguishing characteristics.
The long dry season of the llanos and surrounding slopes, which have not as yet been devoted to cultivation, will require a different system of agriculture with systematic irrigation.
In colonial times the llanos were covered with immense herds of cattle and horses and were inhabited by a race of hardy, expert horsemen, the llaneros.