This powder is then lixiviated with hot water, the liquor decanted, and the alum allowed to crystallize.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
The kelp obtained by any of these methods is then lixiviated with water, which extracts the soluble salts, and the liquid is concentrated, when the less soluble salts, which are chiefly alkaline chlorides, sulphates and carbonates, crystallize out and are removed.
7764 (1890)] decomposes sulphocyanides by fusing with zinc: the zinc is heated with a small quantity of carbon and when completely fused potassium sulphocyanide is added, the mass being well stirred and heated until it thickens and begins to turn red; finally it is allowed to cool out of contact with air, lixiviated with water, the solution decanted, and evaporated to a paste in vacuo.
Ores in which the copper is present as sulphate are directly lixiviated and treated with iron.
The sulphate, oxide or chlorides, which are obtained from the sulphuretted ores, are lixiviated and the metal precipitated fn the same manner as we have previously described.
The fused mass separates into two layers, the upper of which contains a mixture of potassium and lithium sulphates; this is lixiviated with water and converted into the mixed chlorides by adding barium chloride, the solution evaporated and the lithium chloride extracted by a mixture of dry alcohol and ether.