Within the Episcopal Church and supported by its endowments, Robert Blair, John Livingstone and other ministers maintained a Scottish Presbyterian communion.
Baker, the writings of Livingstone, and the biographies of Gordon may be consulted, besides the many documents on these subjects published by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.
Blantyre Works (pop. 1683) was the birthplace of David Livingstone (1813-1873) and his brother Charles (1821-1873), who as lads were both employed as piecers in a local cotton-mill.
Sir John Steell's equestrian statue of the duke of Wellington stands in front of the Register House, and in Princes Street Gardens are statues of Livingstone, Christopher North, Allan Ramsay, Adam Black and Sir J.
Conglomerate beds occur in belts forming in descending order the Elsburg series, Kimberley series, Bird Reef series, Livingstone Reef series, Main Reef series.
Within a few weeks of the signing of the convention Pretorius had asked the British authorities to close the " lower road " to the interior, that is the route through Bechuanaland, opened up by Moffat, Livingstone and other missionaries.
The Barolong, Bakwena and other Bechuana tribes, through whose lands the " lower road " ran, claimed however to be independent, among them Sechele (otherwise Setyeli), at whose chief kraalKolobeng - Livingstone was then stationed.
Dr Livingstone obtained a depth of 326 fathoms opposite Mount Kabogo, south of Ujiji.
Ujiji became famous some years later as the spot where Dr Livingstone was found by Stanley in 1871, after being lost to sight for some time in the centre of the continent.
- The narratives of Burton, Livingstone, Cameron and Stanley; E.
Traces of a somewhat similar story have also been met with among the Mongolian Tharus in northern India (Report of the Census of Bengal, 1872, p. 160), and, according to Dr Livingstone, among the Africans of Lake Ngami.
Livingstone and Robert Fulton, was prominent in the development of steam navigation.
When about 1439 Queen Jane was married to Sir James Stewart, the knight of Lorne, Livingstone obtained the custody of the young king, whose minority was marked by fierce hostility between the Douglases and the Crichtons, with Livingstone first on one side and then on the other.
1463), daughter of Arnold, duke of Gelderland, and undertook the government himself; and almost immediately Livingstone was arrested, but Douglas retained the royal favour for a few months more.
The arrival of David Livingstone in 1841 marked the beginning of the systematic exploration of the northern regions.
Save the Vaal river no frontier was indicated, and " boasting," writes Livingstone in his Missionary Travels, " that the English had given up all the blacks into their power.
Again to quote Livingstone, " The Boers resolved to shut up the interior and I determined to open the country."
The testimony of Livingstone confirms them, and even a Dutch clergyman, writing in 1869, described the system of apprenticeship of natives which obtained among the Boers " as slavery in the fullest sense of the word."
In spite of the convention the Boers remained in Stellaland and Goshen - which were west of the new Transvaal frontier, and in April 1884 the Rev. John Mackenzie, who had succeeded Livingstone, was sent to the country to arrange matters.
The history of the country shows how much has been due to the efforts of men like Livingstone, Mackenzie and Rhodes.
But Livingstone, who was not only a missionary but also an enlightened traveller, stated that a considerable amount of benefit had been conferred upon the native races by missionary teaching.
Livingstone was a great advocate of the prohibition of alcohol among the natives, and that policy was always adhered to by Khama.
Of early works the most valuable are David Livingstone, Missionary Travels in South Africa (London, 1857); Robert Moffat, Missionary Labours and Scenes in Southern Africa (London, 1842); J.
Then, less than five months afterwards, David Livingstone died at Ilala; and no event of the whole century did so much to wake up Protestant Christendom.
David Livingstone was as determined to open the interior as the Boers were to keep it shut, and he succeeded, pushing north, discovering Lake Ngami, and consecrating a remarkable life to the evangelization of Central Africa.
The upper Congo region opened up by Livingstone and Stanley has been a favourite sphere for what are known as " faith societies," e.g.
The American Baptists continue the work started by the Livingstone Inland Mission in 1878, and the Southern Presbyterian Board (American) have done notable work.
It is the seat of Livingstone College (African Methodist Episcopal, removed from Concord to Salisbury in 1882, chartered 1885).
Livingstone goes so far as to say, "nothing that I ever learned of the lion could lead me to attribute to it either the ferocious or noble character ascribed to it elsewhere," and he adds that its roar is not distinguishable from that of the ostrich.
Traveller, Francisco de Lacerda, in 1798, Bangweulu was first reached in 1868 by David Livingstone, who died six years later among the swamps to the south.
Livingstone and Crichton, previously foes, invited him and his brother to dine with the child king in Edinburgh castle, and there served to him " the black dinner " bewailed in a fragment of an early ballad.
Involved in secular feuds with Douglas, Livingstone and the earl of Crawford, Kennedy destroyed Crawford with a spiritual weapon, his Curse (23rd of January 1445-1446).
On his death the nobles, notably Fleming, Livingstone, Crawford, Hamilton and Boyd, made a band for securing power and place.
They were never again dangerous at this period, were scattered by Livingstone in a surprise at Cromdale haughs, and government began to attempt to buy from chiefs the peace of the clans.
In the house were a Mr. Livingstone (a descendant of David Livingstone), his wife, and other Europeans, in all three men, three women and five children.
Mr. Livingstone was killed by a blow from an axe and decapitated in the presence of his wife.
The lake was discovered by David Livingstone in 1859 and was by him called Shirwa, from a mishearing of the native name.
During his apprenticeship to his father, a carpenter, he attended evening classes at Anderson's College, where he had Lyon Playfair and David Livingstone for fellow-pupils; and the ability he showed was such that Thomas Graham, the professor of chemistry, chose him as lecture assistant in 1832.
Young was a liberal supporter of David Livingstone, and also gave Io,50o to endow a chair of technical chemistry at Anderson's College.
Livingstone, Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (1857); W.
This town, visited by Livingstone, Stanley and Cameron, until lately one of the greatest markets in Africa, has ceased to exist, and its site, when I last saw it, was occupied by a single house.
Describing the forests of the Manyema country, west of Lake Tanganyika, David Livingstone wrote:" Into these [primeval forests] the sun, though vertical, 'cannot penetrate, excepting by sending down at mid-day thin pencils of rays into the gloom.
It was visited by David Livingstone in 1871, and from it in 1876 H.
The history section includes a valuable summary of the work of exploration in the Congo basin from the days of David Livingstone up to 1893.
DAVID LIVINGSTONE (1813-1873), Scottish missionary and explorer in Africa, was born on the 19th of March 1813, at the village of Blantyre Works, in Lanarkshire, Scotland.
Livingstone had set his heart on China, and it was a great disappointment to him that the society finally decided to send him to Africa.
Livingstone sailed from England on the 8th of December 1840.
The next two years Livingstone spent in travelling about the country to the northwards, in search of a suitable outpost for settlement.
To a house, mainly built by himself at Mabotsa, Livingstone in 1844 brought home his wife, Mary Moffat, the daughter of Moffat of Kuruman.
Crossing the Kalahari Desert, of which Livingstone gave the first detailed account, they reached the lake on the 1st of August 1849.
A year later, April 1851, Livingstone, again accompanied by his family and Oswell, set out, this time with the intention of settling among the Makololo for a period.
Livingstone may now be said to have completed the first period of his career in Africa, the period in which the work of the missionary had the greatest prominence.
Having seen his family off to England, Livingstone left Cape Town on the 8th of June 1852, and turning north again reached Linyante, the capital of the Makololo, on the Chobe, on the 23rd of 11ay 1853, being cordially received by Sekeletu and his people.
To accompany Livingstone twenty-seven men were selected from the various tribes under Sekeletu, partly with a view to open up a trade route between their own country and the coast.
On the 4th of April the Kwango was crossed, and on the 31st of May the town of Loanda was entered, Livingstone, however, being all but dead from fever, semi-starvation and dysentery.
From Loanda Livingstone sent his astronomical observations to Sir Thomas Maclear at the Cape, and an account of his journey to the Royal Geographical Society, which in May 18J5 awarded him its patron's medal.
Loanda was left on the 10th of September 1854, but Livingstone lingered long about the Portuguese settlements.
Here Livingstone made a careful study of the hydrography of the country.
Livingstone reached the Portuguese settlement of Tete on the 2nd of March 1856, in a very emaciated condition.
When Livingstone began his work in Africa the map was virtually a blank from Kuruman to Timbuktu, and nothing but envy or ignorance can throw any doubt on the originality of his discoveries.
The Zambezi expedition, of which Livingstone thus became commander, sailed from Liverpool in H.M.S.
Robert Moffat and David Livingstone among the Bechuanas, E.