The estimates for 1908 showed that the revenue was derived as follows: Direct taxes on land, houses, mines, industry and commerce, livestock, registration acts, titles of nobility, mortgages and salaries paid by the state, 18,oao,8oo; indirect taxes, including customs, excise, tolls and bridge and ferry dues, 14,748,000; tobacco monopoly, lottery, mint, national property, balance from public treasury, &c., 8,858,400; total 41,627,200.
During the 19th century the percentage under wheat showed a general tendency to increase; that under oats increased much in the later decades as livestock farming became common, rye maintained a steady proportion, but barley, formerly the principal grain-crop, decreased greatly.
Ban Jellacic, though loyal to the Emperor, had given expression to their aspirations towards unity as early as 1848; but Francis Joseph handed over the Croats and Serbs to Magyar domination (1867), and Dalmatia, the territory of the Austrian Croats, had been neglected by Vienna for years past; thus it was not till the years immediately preceding the war that it was rapidly developed by the construction of ports and railways and the encouragement of tourist traffic. The Slovenes, who inhabited Carinthia and Carniola, had less grounds for discontent, for the barren Karst had been afforested at the expense of the state; but though they were at the very gate of Serbia, they suffered from a shortage of meat, for Hungary obstructed the traffic in livestock in the interests of her great territorial magnates, and Austria bore the brunt of this.
The total value of farm property, with improvements, machinery and livestock, was $84,079,702 in 1880; $119,849,272 (average value per farm, $1042) in 1890; and $153,591,159 (average value, $989) in 1900; while the average value per acre of farm-land increased from $9.09 in 1890, to $10.98 in 1900.
Podgoritsa receives from the eastern plains and the north-eastern highlands a great quantity of tobacco, fruit, cereals, honey, silk, livestock and other commodities, which it distributes through Plavnitsa, its port on Lake Scutari, and through Riyeka to Cettigne and Cattaro.
Coal, iron ore, building materials, lumber, livestock, cotton, fruits, vegetables, tobacco and grain are the great items in the domestic commerce of the country, upon its railways, inland waterways, and in the coasting trade.
The important exports are gums and resin, fibre, hides, ivory, ostrich feathers, coffee, ghee, livestock, gold ingots from Abyssinia and mother-of-pearl; the shells being found along the coast from Zaila to beyond Berbera.
The Indian-corn, wheat and livestock sections of the state, are in the Piedmont Plateau, the Hagerstown Valley and the central portion of the East Shore.
It is a livestock market, and one of the chief centres in the United States for the manufacture of saddlery and leather goods, and of cotton-gin machinery.
The chief agricultural products are grain, rice, beans, cotton, opium and poppy seed, sesame, fennel, red pepper, and much of the finest tobacco grown in Europe; there is also some trade in timber, livestock, skins, furs, wool and silk cocoons.
The livestock interest is stimulated by the enormous demand for beef-cattle at Kansas City.
Austin is the principal trade and jobbing centre for central and western Texas, is an important market for livestock, cotton, grain and wool, and has extensive manufactories of flour, cotton-seed oil, leather goods, lumber and wooden ware; the value of the factory product in 1905 was $1,569,353, being 105.2% more than in 1900.
In 1900 the value of farm land and improvements was $291,117,430; of buildings on farms, $90,887,460; of livestock, $73,739,106.
The livestock industry was introduced by the Franciscans and flourished exceedingly.
Irrigation has made a surer future for limited areas, however, and the introduction of drought-resisting crops and the substitution of dairy and livestock interests in the place of agriculture have brightened the outlook in the western counties, whose population increased rapidly after 1900.
The city is situated in a rich farming region; is an important shipping point for livestock, grain and other farm products; and is especially known as a centre for the manufacture of wire-fences.
The total value of farm property in 1900 was $182,646,704, including livestock valued at $15,798,464.
Almost from the date of their taking possession of the Cape of Good Hope and its vicinity, the Netherlands East Indian Company instituted annual returns of population, livestock and agricultural produce.
The breeding of livestock, fishing, and some domestic trades, chiefly carried on by the women, are the principal sources of maintenance.
The leading agricultural pursuits are the growing of Indian corn and wheat and the raising of livestock, yet it is in the production of fruits, vegetables and tobacco, that Maryland ranks highest as an agricultural state, and in no other state except South Carolina is so large a per cent.
Of the livestock, hogs were the most numerous in 1900, cattle next, sheep third, and horses fourth.
Krushevats is the capital of a department bearing the same name, and has an active trade in tobacco, hemp, flax, grain and livestock, for the sale of which it possesses about a dozen markets.
Kansas City is primarily a commercial centre, and its trade in livestock, grain and agricultural implements is especially large.
The annual pure-bred livestock show is of national importance.
The exports consist chiefly of livestock, jerked beef, hides, wool, and other animal products, wheat, flour, corn, linseed, barley, hay, tobacco, sealskins, fruit, vegetables, and some minor products.
The value of all farm property was $864,100,286 - of which land and improvements (including buildings), livestock and implements and machinery represented respectively 74'5, 22'1 and 3'4%.
Almost nine-tenths of all farms derived their principal income from livestock or hay and grain, these two sources being about equally important.
According to the estimates of the state department of agriculture, of the total value of all agricultural products in the twenty years 188 51904 ($3, 0 7 8, 999, 8 55), Indian corn and wheat together represented more than two-fifths (821'3 and 518'1 million dollars respectively), and livestock products nearly one-third (1024.9 millions).
In addition to agriculture, the breeding of livestock, more especially sheep, camels, horses and asses, fishing in the waters of the lower Tarim, and the transportation of merchandise are all important means of livelihood.
The whaling industry came into importance towards the close of the 19th century, and stations for the extraction of the oil and whalebone have been established at several points, under careful regulations designed to mitigate the pollution of water, the danger to livestock from eating the blubber, &c. The finner whale is the species most commonly taken.
Despite all the efforts of the breeders and of the government, a decline has gone on not only in horse-rearing, but also in other classes of livestock since 1865.
Cotton, cotton-seed and grain (durra, wheat, barley) sesame, livestock, hides and skins, beeswax, mother-of-pearl, senna and gold are also exported.
Indian corn and abundant grasses give to Missouri, as to the other central prairie states, a sound basis for her livestock interests.
The value of all livestock in 1890 was $29,689,509 and in 1900, $65,173,432.