One of the chief names for the priest was baru - literally the "inspector" - which was given to him because of the prominence of his function as an inspector of livers for the purpose of divining the intention of the gods.
Lastly, to pass over unnecessary details, the markings of various kinds to be observed on the lobes of the livers of freshly-slaughtered animals, which are due mainly to the traces left by the subsidiary hepatic ducts and hepatic veins on the liver surface, were described as "holes," "paths," "clubs" and the like.
The constantly varying character of these markings, no two livers being alike in this respect, furnished a particularly large field for the fancy of the baru-priest.
In the early process for extracting the oil the livers were allowed to putrefy in wooden tubs, when oils of two qualities, one called "pale oil," and the other "light brown oil," successively rose to the surface and were drawn off.
The modern practice consists in heating the perfectly fresh, cleaned livers by steam to a temperature above that of boiling water, or, in more recent practice, to a lower temperature, the livers being kept as far as possible from contact with air.
The "pale" and "light brown" oils are used in pharmacy; the "brown" oil, the cod oil of commerce, being obtained from putrid and decomposing livers, has an objectionable taste and odour and is largely employed by tanners.
By boiling the livers at a somewhat high temperature, "unracked" cod oil is obtained, containing a considerable quantity of "stearine"; this fat, which separates on cooling, is sold as "fish stearine" for soapmaking, or as "fish-tallow" for currying.
"Coast cod oil" is the commercial name for the oil obtained from the livers of various kinds of fish, e.g.
By the union of antimony trisulphide with basic sulphides, livers of antimony are obtained.
While in a general way the reign of law and order in the movements of the heavenly bodies was recognized, and indeed must have exercised an influence at an early period in leading to the rise of a methodical divination that was certainly of a much higher order than the examination of an animal's liver, yet the importance that was laid upon the endless variations in the form of the phenomena and the equally numerous apparent deviations from what were regarded as normal conditions, prevented for a long time the rise of any serious study of astronomy beyond what was needed for the purely practical purposes that the priests as "inspectors" of the heavens (as they were also the "inspectors" of the sacrificial livers) had in mind.
Thus all the buttresses of the monarchical institution began to fall to pieces: the Church, undermined by the heresy of Jansenism, weakened by the inroads of philosophy, Ancient discredited by evil-livers among the priesthood, and Influcn~t divided against itself, like all losing parties; the and last!nobility of the court, still brave at heart, though ~~1tb0u1&